Home Menopause Test

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Regarding menopause; how do I manage to deal with perimenopause and still having PMS without losing my mind?
    I am 37, tested positive for menopause with a home menopause test kit, and have PMS symptoms worse than ever. When will this stop?? I live in a new country with nationalized health care and don't have my card yet so I can't go to the doctor unless it is an emergency. I should get my new medical card in a few months but I am miserable now. Please advise.

    • ANSWER:
      I have been there too, I had surgical menopause at 30. What helps is to cut caffiene, nicotine and extra fats and sugars from your diet. try to eat only whole foods and definitely eat soy if you can tolerate it. Eat things that help detoxify your body, pickles, cranberry juice, grapes, etc. The less toxins you ingest, the less bothersome your hot flashes and other symptoms will be. Try to find some sort of hormone replacement therapy over the counter until you can get to the doctor and get the real thing.
      Best of luck to you.
      Blessings.

  2. QUESTION:
    Would a home menopause test work for testing for premature ovarian failure?
    One of these: http://www.amazon.com/Menopause-Test-Accurate-Clear-results/dp/B00896PNZE/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1362354574&sr=8-1&keywords=menopause+test
    I'm 25, but my period has gone down to less than a day over the past year. Last year, I took a test at home and it said I had high FSH levels. The last couple periods were pretty normal, but this month I haven't gotten anything yet. We were safe, and I don't think I'm pregnant.

    I have not used B/C in four years and I had not gotten pregnant in the past four years. I had a few miscarriages before that and two successful pregnancies, the first one being when I was 17 years old.

    • ANSWER:
      The only reason a 25 year old would have an extremely elevated FSH level is premature ovarian failure. So the home test for FSH can be a good indicator. But it's not 100% reliable--it's not what the test is designed for. You can also have low ovarian reserve. The test could not distinguish that.

  3. QUESTION:
    Is anyone going through the dreaded menopause?
    Anyone there getting hot sweats throughout day and night, also getting big tummy and look pregnant. I know I am not pregnant but tummy and boobs getting bigger. I have done a home menopause test which was very positive. Any ideas on getting rid of big tum. I am skinny everywhere else. No jokes please I am having serious problems getting clothes to fit. I am size8/10 below and 14-16 on top. Thanks for any help given.
    I bought the test in Asda beside the pregnancy tests

    • ANSWER:
      im 25 and going through early menopause,its the most awfull thing ive ever encounterd in my life and i truly sympathise with you.lots of love and hugs.

  4. QUESTION:
    My period is five days late, but 3 pregnancy tests came out negative. What could it be?
    I have all the menopause symptoms, could I be having early menopause? I'm only 26, but have every single symptom the internet sites list. I hope not, but I don't know what else it could be. And I don't know when to expect my cycle to finally come.

    • ANSWER:
      Five days may be too early to detect pregnancy with at home pregnancy tests. Go have blood test at your ob gyn to see if you are in early pregnancy. no one goes into menopause at 26 unless there are other serious problems. Get a blood pregnancy test it is much more accurate than home pregnancy test in the early stages of pregnancy

  5. QUESTION:
    Will a home pregnancy test still work if your tubes are tied?
    I had my tubes tied in dec of 08 and since then my periods have been very regular. I was suppose to start April 30th and it is now may 10th I took two pregnancy tests and they were negative... I'm getting kinda worried

    • ANSWER:
      Having a tubal ligation will not have any effect on a pregnancy test- yes, they will still work.

      There are many reasons other than pregnancy that can cause a tardy or absent menstrual cycle- illness, stress, menopause.

  6. QUESTION:
    I took a home pregnancy test and the instructions said?
    to pee on it for five seconds, but I probably didn't even pee on it for two seconds. does it really matter? the test came out negative but I want to be sure.

    • ANSWER:
      Too little urine can affect the results. Did you buy a 1 pack or a 2 pack?

      I like the dollar store tests were you pee in the cup and use the dropper, because it's far easier to drop 5 drops onto the test and get an accurate reading then pee and try to count 5 seconds. Plus, for an accurate test that costs is better.... :-)

      Can't get false positives unless you just had a miscarriage or are having menopause.

  7. QUESTION:
    Will I go through early menopause if I get one ovary removed?
    I recently found out that I have a huge ovarian cyst on my left side and that I am going to need surgery ASAP! My gynecologist wants to remove the whole ovary because there is a very small chance that it could be malignant. Is there any possibility that it would cause me to go into early menopause if I keep the right ovary?

    • ANSWER:
      Dear Jesus_is.., So sorry for your Medical condition and hope you will feel better soon. that said as to your question Your doctor may conduct an ovary removal, or oophorectomy, as part of a hysterectomy or if you have an abnormal growth. This surgery is often performed by laparoscopy so you can go home the same day or the following day.An oophorectomy is the removal of one or both your ovaries (female reproductive structure responsible for producing eggs and generating hormones). When one ovary is removed, the procedure is called a unilateral oophorectomy, and when both ovaries...Surgical menopause is the removal of a woman's ovaries during surgery. Only the ovaries may be removed, or the woman may have a partial or total hysterectomy. Removing the uterus and fallopian tubes will not cause surgical menopause, only the...If only one ovary is removed, the woman will not go through surgical menopause because there is still another ovary producing hormones.Know Who Needs Surgical Menopause, Women who have ovarian cancer may have their ovaries removed during surgery. Women who suffer from painful fibroid tumors may also opt to have the ovaries surgically removed. Some women who are genetically predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer opt to have their ovaries removed, especially if their sisters or mother have developed breast or ovarian cancer. Mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have a high risk for breast or ovarian cancer. If there is a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer, get genetic testing to find out if you have the mutation.All surgeries have risks that are serious considerations for you. Excessive blood loss, infection and complications from anesthesia are just some of the risks of all surgery. Other complications for removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy) include unintentional injury to other internal organs during surgery and intestinal blockages.Predicting Hot Flashes, Yes! You will have all the symptoms of natural menopause after surgery to remove the ovaries. You may experience one or all of these symptoms immediately after surgery including hot flashes, mood swings, difficulty sleeping, night sweats, vaginal dryness, diminished sex drive and fatigue, unless you start on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) right away. HRT can be in the form of a pill, gel or a patch prescribed in the lowest possible dosage,Understand Hormone Replacement Therapy ,Estrogen Therapy alone does increase the risk of uterine cancer, so most women are given a combination of estrogen and progestin, called Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) or Hormone Therapy. If you've had a total hysterectomy and the uterus has been removed, you no longer have to worry about uterine cancer. Progestin protects the uterus from cancer, which is why it's combined with estrogen to provide protection against cancer in HRT. Most doctors agree that women should remain on HRT for no more than 5 years. Side effects of HRT can include headaches and breast pain. Some women temporarily gain water weight. More serious side effects of HRT include bleeding, cancer, stroke, heart disease, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Go for regular check ups while you're on HRT, and contact your doctor if you experience any unusual side effects. I hope all these information helped you with more knowledge which will take you from Zero to hero. Good luck best wishes hope you get better soon. Sorry for your problems but you will get better dear hope for the best.

  8. QUESTION:
    What does it mean when you have hot flashes and feel sick to your stomach?
    Im only 22 so i know its not menopause! Ive just recently started feeling like this the past 2 weeks! it only seems to be getting worse. Idk if i could be pregnant
    i wont know if im late for a few weeks! And the symptoms seem to happen more twords the evening.

    • ANSWER:
      When I read your title question I immediately remembered my first pregnancy. In other words, sounds like "morning sickness" even though mine was more like "evening sickness." I would break out in a sweat, feel dizzy, weak, like I was going to pass out, and then I would vomit. It was like my body did everything it could to keep me from getting to the commode so I didn't make a mess! LOL... Make an appointment with your gynecologist (do that first since it is sometimes hard to get an appointment soon), then get a pregnancy test and take it at home. If you're not pregnant you can cancel your appointment with the gynecologist and see your GP instead. There is obviously something going on so you should see someone. Good Luck!

  9. QUESTION:
    Senior citizens(females)At what age did u get ur menopause and how did u know that u r not pregnant?
    Nearly 45 and missed my period. I don't know if this is due 2 pregnancy or is it menopause?Also have multiple fibroids and hypothyroidism. So how does one know if this is menopause or pregnancy?

    • ANSWER:
      Unlike chemically or surgically induced menopause, natural menopause is not something you "get."
      It's years of process. Slowing down. Erratic cycles. Can miss cycles for months and then have spotting or a heavy cycle. It's different for all women.
      If not wanting to get pregnant, this is the most important time to use birth control.
      I began the symptoms at age 48. From last months of 50 through 51 I had no cycle & then it began again. If there was a viable egg before that cycle, pregnancy could have occurred.
      I can not get pregnant so this is no worry for me.
      If I could get pregnant, I'd take an at home test to let me know if I should see a doctor.
      This would be a good time to see your usual doctor who may know more about your previous cycles and might better estimate how long you should be menstrual cycle free to consider yourself as past menopause.

  10. QUESTION:
    How can I reduce the amount of hair that fall out of my head?
    I seem to be losing a lot of hair. I have no medical problem because I've been in for a lot of testing and everything was normal but I stress too much.

    I lose about 15-20 hair whenever I brush them where as before only like 4 came out. What can I do to reduce the amount of hair falling out? I know it's normal to lose 100 a day but do have any tips to decrease the amount of hair falling out?

    • ANSWER:
      Find the 'cause' before you can find the solution, then eliminate them. Your hair will improve. Remember, whatever it was that caused them to fall out in the first place, it took years to get in your system, it will takes years to flush them down, so don't expect miracles overnight.

      So many reasons why you have hair loss:

      Supplements, steroids, hereditary, hair dyes perming, straightening, diet, having babies (yes I read once it happened to her), stress, medications with testosterone, certain antidepressants, menopause, anti-acne, and too much of everything. Add to that the 7,000 + toxic found in your home, plus pollution found outdoors. Your hair is crying for help!
      When your teeth falls or get cavities, do you blame the toothpaste?

      When your hair is crying for help, that's when it's too late to do anything about it, and hair products can not reverse the problem.

      They also say you normally lose 100-200 hair a day, but I don't. I lose about 7-8 every time I brush it, so that's about 100 per week, give or take.

      The majority of hair problems here are from girls in their 30s, asking how to care for their damaged hair, what product to make their hair grow, why their hair falls out, and why their shampoo or conditioner don't work. Women between 60-80 have that same problem, but it took them years to get there. And those same 30 & under girls are giving advice here? Now, I'm answering more problems re: hair fall or hair not growing. Go figure!

      Even the cheapest shampoo can do magic for your hair, so it must be what you're doing AFTER you wash it. Shampoos and vitamins might make your hair look and feel healthier, but they won’t put more hairs on your head.

      According Dr. Melissa Piliang, a dermatologist at the Cleveland Clinic. Americans spent an estimated 6 million on hair loss products last year, and chances are some of that money was not well spent. Don’t let charming salon owners, seductive ads or fancy gimmicks convince you otherwise.

      Source(s):
      Hair DX
      I know hair. I am in my early 60's, and I've been having menopause, and I am not experimenting hair loss, for those who said I don't know what I'm talking about when it comes to hair. I have silky, shiny, soft, smooth very healthy long hair. Previously damaged by perming & dyeing. What you see on my profile is what I have now. It's as thick as when I'm in my teens.
      Stress, seldom. I went through stress when both parents died, plus sister taking me to court & selling the house, on my own and still no hair loss here!

  11. QUESTION:
    Are there similarities between the symptoms of early pregnancy & perimenopause?
    I am 36 and 6 days late. I already have children and was not planning on more, so I do however recognize the symptoms of pregnancy. I have taken several home pregnancys tests and they all result in a negative reading? I did have unprotected sex so pregnancy could be a possibility. My mom go through menopause early she is convinced that I am going through perimenopause. Anyone every experience similar, or know anything about this I have been doing some research and cannot find much information. HELP!

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, there are lots of similarities. I had this happen when I was about your age - skipped one period completely, and was sure I was pregnant. The primary difference is that when I was pregnant my breasts were very sensitive, and with perimenopause, that doesn't happen so much.

  12. QUESTION:
    What does it mean to be constantly dreaming of pregnancy?
    It seems like almost every night I dream of pregnancy. One dream I dreamt of some party girls in a club with huge pregnant bellies, another dream I dreamt of being early in pregnancy and trying to keep it a secret, and last dream I dreamt of taking two pregnancy tests and one having a positive result and the other having a negative result. What do you think these mean??? And I am definitely not at the time in my life to be pregnant, so what do these mean??

    • ANSWER:
      First things first; If you are a female, sexually active and at any time in life between menarche and menopause, you definitely COULD be pregnant. Get yourself a home test kit and find out whether these dreams are responding to hormonal changes in your body.

      Once that is truly determined, dreams about pregnancy generally symbolize a work in progress or a creative project the dreamer is bringing "to birth." For example, when a writer is in the middle of writing a novel, she will dream of being pregnant, because the book is her "baby." From the uncertainty and secrecy motif in your dreams, it seems that you have not really decided to fully commit to the project you have in mind. Your dream is saying that it is time to make a decision, because after all, you can't be "a little bit pregnant." Either embrace this job or move on to something else.

  13. QUESTION:
    It has been 4wks and 5 days since last period, pregancy test show negative! I have never been late before?
    I am 37 years old! I have taken 3 test and all say negative. Please anyone give me some advise!

    • ANSWER:
      That is somewhat odd to be 4 weeks,5 days late when your period is always on time. But as other posters mentioned, many outside factors can cause a period to be late or not come at all, such as stress.

      When did you take the 3 tests that were negative? If you took them very early on (like when you were only a few days late) it may have been too soon to test and have the results be reliable.
      Have you talked to your doctor about this? What have they said? Did they give you a BLOOD pregnancy test? Blood tests are generally more accurate and can be done sooner than at home pregnancy tests.

      Also, and this may be a personal question- but how old was your mother when she went through "the change?" The reason I ask is because if experiencing the change early in life runs in your family, it isn't odd to have late periods, longer cycles, and miss periods all together in the years leading up to menopause- even several years before in some cases. However that is rather uncommon.

      I would definitely suggest contacting your doctor if youre this late and think there is a possibility that you are pregnant. As someone else mentioned, your body may just produce alot less of the HCG hormone during pregnancy than the average woman which could explain the negative urine test results.

      Best of luck to you!

  14. QUESTION:
    For a woman who has irregular periods, what's the earliest possible time to do a home pregnancy test?
    I'm 52 and going to enter menopause as my periods are irregular and I have missed periods sometimes. Most home pregnancy kits suggest testing a day after a missed period, but under my condition, what should be the right time to do a pregnancy test? My scan on April 26th shows thick endometrium. My last period was on March, 1st. Sex on April 2nd. Home pregnancy test done on April 23rd is negative. Am I pregnant?

    • ANSWER:

  15. QUESTION:
    How to check my progesterone level? How to read the results? and what role does it play in TTC period?
    Today is 15dpo.I had checked thru home PTK on 11Dpo it was negative.my Af is due 2maro. I have 30 days cycle.

    • ANSWER:
      It's in this last phase of the monthly cycle, the luteal phase as it's normally called, that progesterone levels rise considerably above that found in the first half or follicular phase. Rising from as little as less than 1ng/mL to 20ng/mL (serum levels). Saliva levels are much higher (see ZRT Labs below).

      When a test for progesterone levels is performed it is essential to realise two things...

      what unit of measurement was used... SI or conventional? The two cannot be compared unless a conversion is made
      was it a serum test or saliva test? These also cannot be compared

      Simple Progesterone Test
      using a Basal Thermometer
      One of the effects of an elevated progesterone level is an increase in body temperature - a thermal shift. Through the use of a basal thermometer women can accurately monitor their temperature which indicates a rise in progesterone (about a 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit increase) and a fall of progesterone, triggering menstruation, corresponding to a decrease in temperature.

      A basal thermometer may also be valuable in determining if you are progesterone deficient during pre-menopause years. (Post menopause women are not ovulating and menstruating and have constantly low progesterone levels so progesterone level shifts will not occur.) Temperature should rise at ovulation and be high until a day or two so before the end of the cycle and the start of menstruation. Fluctuations may occur due to a "double ovulation" (rare but possible within 3 days of initial ovulation) and due to sickness and a change in the time of the daily early morning temperature measurement. However if the your temperature never rises (indicating no ovulation) or consistently drops several days after ovulation staying low for days or even to the end of the cycle there is a very good chance that your progesterone levels are not being adequately maintained. Low progesterone levels can contribute to miscarriages and osteoporosis and numerous other estrogen dominance effects. You can verify your findings from home if desired by using saliva hormone testing.

      Hope this helps... This is something I have never done research on til now.

  16. QUESTION:
    Has anyone ever had a false positive pregnancy test?
    I used a store bought pink dye urine test and there are two lines on it, but I also took two other ones and they are negative. So I'm not looking on answers based on opinion, I'm looking for answers based on personal experience. Did you ever have one come out positive and found out later you were not pregnant?

    • ANSWER:
      False positives are only caused by menopause/perimenopause, taking fertility meds containing hcg, recently having ended a pregnancy (birth, misscarriage, abortion), and a handful of extremely rare medical problems. If a test is faulty the test line won't show. Sometimes home tests are read incorrectly and in rare instances a woman can have an early miscarriage no worse than a period. All traces of pregnancy hormones can be gone from the system as early as a week after miscarrying. If there are no trace hormones left there is no way to tell a miscarriage has occurred.

  17. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to be pregnant and still be bleeding?
    I didnt have a period for 3 months then I have been bleeding for 3 months. I have gained weight like crazy and my belly looks pregnant. Home pregnancy tests come out negative. Could I be pregnant or is this menopause or maybe something else. Im 48.

    • ANSWER:
      Vaginal bleeding can occur frequently in the first trimester of pregnancy and may not be a sign of problems. But bleeding that occurs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy can often be a sign of a possible complication. Bleeding can be caused by a number of reasons.
      Check with your Doctor. You could have an ectopic pregnancy or some just be peri menopausal.

  18. QUESTION:
    Fertility help! How can I best predict ovulation at 39 years of age?
    Since the LH surge is not the best indicator of ovulation in women who are perimenopausal, what is? I have a doctor who is not really motivated about my getting pregnant. I need to be more informed about what I should be looking for and getting tested.

    I was doing the "first response" home ovulation kit and I was showing high LH surges, which is supposed to mean that you are ovulating. But in women who are older and might be getting closer to menopause, their LH surges are frequent. So what is a better indication of ovulation?

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.webmd.com/baby/healthtool-ovulation-calculator

      and you can also use this as well

      http://www.webmd.com/baby/healthtool-ovulation-calendar

  19. QUESTION:
    is it normal to miss your period after taking next choice morning after pill?
    I was supposed to come on around the 20th of nov... It still hasn't came and November is almost over. I took two home pregnancy test... 3 days ago and on the 19th both were negative. What's up with this. I took plan b on Halloween.

    I have cramps every now and then thinking its my period about to start but they go away and my period never comes.

    • ANSWER:
      There are multiple reasons for a woman to miss a period

      1) Stress
      2) Illness
      3) Change in Schedules
      4) Change in Medications
      5) Being Overweight
      6) Being Underweight
      7) Miscalculation
      8) Peri-Menopause
      9) Menopause
      10) Pregnancy

      What to do next?

      If you have taken a pregnancy test and it is negative. Most tests advise you to wait another week and retest. If the second test is negative or if you have a good idea of why your period is missing, then you can and should call the doctor or midwife sooner for a physical exam. They may also do blood work and can sometimes prescribe medications to help bring on a tardy period, like Provera.

  20. QUESTION:
    What can i do to keep my hair from fallin out ?
    Im 30 i dknt use hair products n barley ever hair spray i blow dry after i wash but not completly dry i dnt straighten but mayb on occasion i curl it its long just more than half way down my back but its so thin n stringy n it just looks so blah its not really dry but breaks so easily what r some home remedies for fuller healthier hair mayb even over the counter

    • ANSWER:
      Find the cause before you find solution. Eliminate the cause and your hair will improve.

      Reasons why that might have happened, below is a short form of why.

      1. During the last 3 years, OK 2, how have you been styling or have you been straightening & dyeing or highlighting your hair?
      Google FDA website Hair dye & relaxers. Those are 75% the reason why.

      2. Have you been taking supplements or using hair oil? Supplements ( billions are wasted and could hurt your lungs, liver, organs even HAIR LOSS). FDA has found that from face creams to soaps and other items of personal care, cosmetics companies are taking the general public for a ride. Oil could be coming from eels or shark. Another 5% why. CNN, Slate, Consumer Reports, MSN, YAHOO have posted them online for years how people spend billion per year on vitamins and supplements.  According to Everyday Health, here's an article that will tell you why . . . those PRODUCTS by any other name do NOT WORK.  It is false advertisements. Google: Are Supplements Good For You? About 3,350,000,000 results results (0.13 seconds).  Google: Are vitamins & supplements good for you? About 230,000,000 results (0.14 seconds) Some can actually shorten your life! The Food & Drug do not approve of them!

      3. Have you been stressed out or changed your diet? Genetics of balding runs in your family? Another 10% why.

      4. Have you been taking medications with testosterone, certain antidepressants, menopause, anti-acne? Even birth control pills can cause hair loss. The medication most often prescribed for thyroid disorders can actually cause hair loss. Another 10% why you have hair falls. All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

      5. Google "Boise teen goes on Today Show to talk about losing her hair." She's got Alopecia, 100% why you have hair loss.

      Dove hairfall facts:
      1. Humidity makes hair dry and brittle, leading to hairfall
      2. Colouring the hair damages the hair strands leading to breakage
      3. Pollution is also an unseen killer of healthy hair
      4. Tangled hair is the most common reason for hair fall
      5. While shampooing cleanses your hair, regular conditioning is required for adequate moisturization. Regular use of conditioner post shampoo also solves the problem of entangling which is the major cause of hairfall.
      For women: A simple blood test can reveal the root of the problem. Unfortunately, those who do see a physician right away make the mistake of going to a dermatologist rather than their primary care physician. Most dermatologists will review the physical signs of hair loss and diagnose it as female pattern baldness.  Your primary care physician will run tests to diagnose the problem so you can take steps to correct it.

      Eliminate cause and your hair will improve. Not overnight, it could take weeks, months, even years, since it took that long to start the hair loss.

      If you think they're from your beauty or hair products:
      Take it back to where you bought it.
      Stop using it ASAP.
      You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs & cosmetics to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

      What should you do if you think that you may have hair loss? First, call your dermatologist today! If you don't have one, visit the "Find a Doctor" portion of the website of the American Academy of Dermatology. Secondly, when you visit your dermatologist, have a list of your medications, allergies, medical conditions and your hair care practices (for example: relaxers for 20 years, hot combs for 10 years, no weaves, braids with extensions for two years and natural styles for the last 5 years). Do not be afraid if your doctor suggests blood test, a scalp biopsy or culture. These procedures are recommended so that the doctor can determine the type of hair loss that you have and treatment can be started. ~Susan C. Taylor, MD

  21. QUESTION:
    Is it possible for a 17 year old to go through menopause?
    I am 17 and haven't had a period since the end of september. I thought I could be pregnant but i did home pregnancy tests, a blood test, and a sonogram.. and nothing. Then they said it was my thyroid so my doctor gave me medicine to make everything come back to normal.. but again, nothing.

    Then I noticed Ive been having hot flashes, irritability, and a lot of other symptoms related to menopause.
    Does anyone think this could be possible? Or what else could it be?

    • ANSWER:
      It actually is possible, but very unlikely. You are probably having a hormonal imbalance for another reason. Have your hormone levels tested, check for cysts, etc. If you are overweight or underweight this could cause you to not ovulate and therefore not get a period because your body doesn't think it is fit for pregnancy. Stress can also stop you from ovulating, but it would have to be some pretty constant stress to stop it for this long.

      P.S. Minor League Fan is wrong. Menopause does not occur when you run out of eggs, but when you stop producing hormones that cause you to ovulate. You have enough eggs to last a lifetime.

  22. QUESTION:
    Ok so I am 46 with no period for almost 3 months, had a tubal ligation 7 years ago, pregnancy test negative?
    Can I be pregnant? I actually took three test, two at home about a month ago, and one at the doc office around the same time. Still no period in sight since March. Sometimes it feels like something is moving inside. I was diagnosed with fibroids a few years back, but haven't had complications from that. Is it possible I am pregnant? I don't have the symptoms of menapause like hot flashes, or anything like that.

    • ANSWER:
      face it, you're getting older...menopause is likely behind all of this even though you don't feel the typical symptoms

  23. QUESTION:
    Is there any way to get rid of my migraines?
    I get them almost every day. I'm 16 year old guy I'm failing school right now I can't stand it I'm on 50 mg of topamax an the migraines will not stop for anything I want to just die sometimes I can hardly see the computer screen right now . They just keep coming like crazy an wont stop I've been tested for brain problems . I mean I can't just feel good for one day ?

    • ANSWER:
      Whatever the exact mechanism of the headaches, a number of things may trigger them. Common migraine triggers include:

      Hormonal changes in women. Fluctuations in estrogen seem to trigger headaches in many women with known migraines. Women with a history of migraines often report headaches immediately before or during their periods, when they have a major drop in estrogen. Others have an increased tendency to develop migraines during pregnancy or menopause. Hormonal medications — such as oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy — also may worsen migraines, though some women find it's beneficial to take them.

      Foods. Some migraines appear to be triggered by certain foods. Common offenders include alcohol, especially beer and red wine; aged cheeses; chocolate; aspartame; overuse of caffeine; monosodium glutamate — a key ingredient in some Asian foods; salty foods; and processed foods. Skipping meals or fasting also can trigger migraines.

      Stress. Stress at work or home can instigate migraines.

      Sensory stimuli. Bright lights and sun glare can produce migraines, as can loud sounds. Unusual smells — including pleasant scents, such as perfume, and unpleasant odors, such as paint thinner and secondhand smoke, can also trigger migraines.

      Changes in wake-sleep pattern. Either missing sleep or getting too much sleep may serve as a trigger for migraine attacks in some individuals, as can jet lag.

      Physical factors. Intense physical exertion, including sexual activity, may provoke migraines.

      Changes in the environment. A change of weather or barometric pressure can prompt a migraine.

      Medications. Certain medications can aggravate migraines.

      Check here for more information.

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/migraine-headache/DS00120/DSECTION=causes

  24. QUESTION:
    Is there a test to find out if menopause will come early?
    My Mom had it early and my 33 year old sister is going through early menopause.

    Now I'm terrified that I will run out of time to have more babies.

    Is there a test to find out if you carry the gene for early menopause?

    • ANSWER:
      There are tests (also, Home Tests) that test for Follicle Stimulating Hormone in your urine to determine whether or not you're in menopause. Also, there are genetic tests which predict the start of menopause. They say that it's relatively inexpensive.

      Smoking cigarettes tends to send a woman into menopause earlier, as well as genes. Good health and eating right tends to delay menopause. Also, childbirth may delay menopause. I have also noticed in my Googling to answer your question that taking Vitamin D and Calcium may delay menopause. You may also bring this up to your doctor at your next Well Woman Checkup.

      Glad to help! It was fun to do a little bit of research to answer your question.

  25. QUESTION:
    What will Doc do about my heavy periods?
    Each month I have one-two days during my period where I am bleeding through a super plus tampon every 20 minutes to an hour for several hours at a stretch. I am not in any pain, but very tired and moody. I do not want to have major surgery at this point ( I am 38 with two kids at home) but I am miserable for a few days each month and now dread getting my period weeks before I actually get it. Anything I can do with out having general anesthesia?

    • ANSWER:
      I had this problem for about five years and for health reasons couldn't take hormone pills and they did all of their test that they could without putting me to sleep and they didn't find any cancer so I decided to live with it and then the pain started for two years. They can do balloon therapy inside the office under local anesthesia where it burns the lining of your uterus and most women go for long periods of time without a period. My uterus was swollen so that wasn't an option. I opted for a partial hysterectomy(they left my ovaries) the pain is gone and I will no longer have periods. I was afraid of being put to sleep and of going through the change. But since it was only a partial I won't go through menopause. See your gynecologist and talk about option. My first two gyn. said I was crazy because they said I couldn't bleed the way I told them I did. We transferred for a job and I found a new Gyn. and he specializes in the problems that I had.

      I feel like a new person and wish I had done it sooner. Please see your Gyn A.S.A.P you'll be glad you did.

  26. QUESTION:
    Late for my period and now I have coloured discharge?
    My period was due on Friday 13th & I still haven't gotten it. I started getting strong period pains this afternoon at half past 1 but there was no bleeding and when I got home from school, I noticed I was leaking a discharge and this evening I saw it was slightly coloured, a sort of brown colour but not the coloured blood you get just before you start bleeding. It's watery and I noticed it also made my underwear very wet. I don't usually get this. It also smelt quite strong.

    Any ideas on what this could be?

    • ANSWER:
      What causes abnormal discharge?
      Any change in the balance of normal bacteria in the vagina can affect the smell, color, or texture of the discharge. These are a few of the things that can upset that balance:

      antibiotic or steroid use
      bacterial vaginosis, which is a bacterial infection more common in pregnant women or women who have multiple sexual partners
      birth control pills
      cervical cancer
      chlamydia or gonorrhea, which are sexually transmitted infections
      diabetes
      douches, scented soaps or lotions, bubble bath
      pelvic infection after surgery
      pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
      trichomoniasis, which is a parasitic infection typically caused by having unprotected sex
      vaginal atrophy, which is thinning and drying out of the vaginal walls during menopause
      vaginitis, which is irritation in or around the vagina
      yeast infections

      Type: Bloody or brown
      Meaning: Irregular menstrual cycles, or less often, cervical or endometrial cancer
      Symptoms: Abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain

      Type:Cloudy or yellow
      Meaning: Gonorrhea
      Symptoms: Bleeding between periods, urinary incontinence

      Type: Frothy, yellow or greenish with a bad smell
      Meaning: Trichomoniasis
      Symptpoms: Pain and itching while urinating

      Type: Pink
      Meaning: Shedding of the uterine lining after childbirth (lochia)
      No other symptoms

      Type: Thick, white, cheesy
      Meaning: Yeast infection
      Symptoms: Swelling and pain around the vulva, itching, painful sexual intercourse

      Type: White, gray, or yellow with fishy odor
      Meaning: Bacterial vaginosis
      Symptoms: Itching or burning, redness and swelling of the vagina or vulva

      How does the doctor diagnose abnormal discharge?
      The doctor will start by taking a health history and asking about your symptoms. Questions the doctor may ask include:

      When did the abnormal discharge begin?
      What color is the discharge?
      Is there any smell?
      Do you have any itching, pain, or burning in or around the vagina?
      Do you have more than one sexual partner?
      Do you douche?
      The doctor may take a sample of the discharge or do a Pap test to collect cells from your cervix for further examination.

      Source(s): http://women.webmd.com/vaginal-discharge-whats-abnormal

  27. QUESTION:
    No period but the test came out negative y?
    I am like the most clock wise person when it come to my menstrual cycle. But as of today my period is 5 days behined and to tell you the truth I dont even have signs that it will be here any time soon. But I did a home pregnancy test and it came out negative. Can pr-menopause have something to do with it. I am 36 years old.

    • ANSWER:
      36 is really young for pre-menopause I think. Sometimes you just skip a period. You may want to check with the doctors to have your levels checked out.

  28. QUESTION:
    I having severe night sweats. Are there any natural things to help?
    I am going through menopause and having severe night sweats. Are there any natural things I can take to help with this? Also, what is a comfortable material to sleep in?

    • ANSWER:
      PLEASE! I cannot stress enough that you have a complete hormone panel test. Saliva is more accurate than blood, but unfortunately, most insurance companies do not recognize this fact (yet). You are experiencing a symptom of hormone inbalance so treating the night sweats is only treating the symptom. It is important to get to the cause of of this symptom.

      Here is an excerpt from womentowomen.com

      5 natural ways to reduce hot flashes and night sweats

      Most of the women we meet in our clinic and Personal Programs prefer to use the most natural, least invasive methods available for health care. For them, addressing their menopausal symptoms by filling a prescription doesn’t hold the appeal it might for others. Antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, sleeping pills, and synthetic hormones, the solutions conventional medicine continues to offer women for hot flash relief, are not the first line of therapy at Women to Women. For 25 years we’ve been offering women safe alternative solutions that effectively address the underlying causes of hot flashes and provide equivalent — if not superior — results.

      Here are some options we find helpful:

      1) Understand your triggers. The first step in pulling the plug on your hot flashes is to identify and understand your triggers. Are you more prone at certain times of the day or night? Do certain foods set you off on a heat wave? Track these observations and patterns in your journal or Women to Women’s Wellness Diary.

      2) Nourish your body’s neuroendocrine pathways. Eat whole, fresh foods, and balance your meals and snacks with plenty of fruits and vegetables, healthy fats, and protein. Add a top-grade multivitamin-mineral complex, essential fatty acids, and soy to augment your core nutrition and ensure an adequate supply of the micronutrients your body needs for neurotransmitter and hormonal balance. With a solid nutritional foundation, you will find the passage through menopause to be a lot less bumpy. (To learn more, read our dietary pointers for quelling hot flashes.)

      3) Stay active. Recent research suggests exercise helps calm hot flashes by reducing anxiety. In a small study looking at the effect of exercise on overall menopause symptoms, women who exercised experienced reduced hot flashes, while those who did not experienced an increase. Whatever form of exercise you enjoy makes for better hormonal health, provided it does not make you feel more stressed-out or overheated. Forms of exercise that raise core body temperature can trigger hot flashes, so be sure to provide ample cool-down time, and avoid dashing off to undertake anything stressful after your work-outs.

      4) Cultivate emotional health. Make a commitment to follow a path that brings you emotional wellness. Take incremental steps to reduce stress, whatever form it takes in your life. Whether that means setting better boundaries at work, home, or within your community, learn to value your own well-being enough to keep commitments and expectations reasonable. Use your inner guidance to seek out and cultivate practices that calm rather than stimulate your inner thermometer. In our experience women find meditation, prayer, yoga, biofeedback, Emotional Freedom Technique, and the Hoffman Quadrinity Process to be extremely helpful.

      5) Add gentle hormonal support when needed. Given that phytohormones approximate the molecular configuration of the hormones produced in our own bodies, it stands to reason that we’re better equipped to utilize them safely and effectively than pharmaceutical drugs or synthetic forms of hormone therapy. If you’re considering herbal support, a product containing a range of plant constituents, like the one we offer in our Personal Program, can offer synergistic benefits that a single herb may not. For more information, read our article on phytotherapy. You may also want to explore acupuncture and Traditional Oriental Medicine (TOM), or talk to your practitioner about bioidentical hormones

  29. QUESTION:
    Do any female animals experience menopause?
    If so, at what age do they experience it and what are the signs of menopause in say for example a rabbit.

    If not, how can you tell that an animal is to old to conceive a baby animal.

    I am mostly wondering about rabbits but I also want to know about any animal.

    • ANSWER:
      Humans (female) are a species that experience menopause. Info follows:

      Menopause
      Menopause is quite simply the final pause of menstruation. This phase of a woman's life is part of the natural aging process. It is not a disease or a disaster. Your ovaries slowly reduce the level of hormones (estrogen and progesterone) they produce and child bearing is no longer an option. For many women this is a big relief. Generally speaking, health professionals agree that 52 is the average age when full menopause takes affect. The full age range is between 42 to 56.

      Menopause is preceded by perimenopause and followed by post menopause. All three stages come with their own telltale signs with considerable overlap from one to the other. So, unlike the beginning of your period, which seems to happen in a single moment of time, menopause is very wishy washy. Full menopause is considered to be in effect when you have not had your period for a full year.

      Menopause is not experienced by all women in the same way. Much depends on the individual's diet, lifestyle, genetics and attitudes held by the woman, her family, culture and society about aging. If you come from a world that does not respect older people, and is narrowly focused on youth, your menopause transition period may be more difficult to navigate. However, you may also experience deep personal growth and a strong sense of liberation.

      Be aware that our commercialized society will try to medicalize your symptoms. Be wise. Look for natural alternatives before getting on the pill band wagon. Weigh the risks and benefits carefully. Become your own authority.

      There is a home-use test that you can take to determine if you are perimenopausal or fully menopausal. U.S Food and Drug Administration approved kits measure Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) in your urine. FSH is a hormone produced by your pituitary gland. FSH levels increase temporarily each month to stimulate your ovaries to produce eggs. When you enter menopause and your ovaries stop working your FSH levels also increase. The test will provide a FSH level reading so that you can determine what stage of "the Pause" you are at.

      As for rabbits, this study may interest you:

      Lack of difference among progestins on the anti-atherogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol: a rabbit study
      Peter Alexandersen1,3, Jens Haarbo1, Pieter Zandberg2, Jørgen Jespersen1, Sven O. Skouby1 and Claus Christiansen1
      1 Center for Clinical & Basic Research, Ballerup Byvej 222, 2750 Ballerup, Denmark and 2 Department of Vascular Pharmacology, N.V.Organon, Molenstraat 110, 5340 BH Oss, The Netherlands

      3 To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: pa@ccbr.dk

      Abstract
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      BACKGROUND: Progestins in combination with estrogen are believed to have different effects on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different oral contraceptive formulations on the development of experimental atherosclerosis and vascular reactivity. METHODS: A total of 160 sexually mature rabbits were ovariectomized and randomly assigned to equally large groups: (i) a cholesterol-rich diet (320 mg/day), either given alone (placebo), or together with (ii) ethinyl estradiol (EE 70 µg/day, oral), (iii) desogestrel (DSG 525 µg/day, oral), (iv) gestodene (GSD 262.5 µg/day, oral), (v) levonorgestrel (LNG 525 µg/day, oral), (vi) EE + DSG, (vii) EE + LNG, or (viii) EE + GSD. After 31 weeks of treatment, aortic accumulation of cholesterol and vascular vasoreactivity (in vitro) were determined. RESULTS: Progestins alone did not reduce the accumulation of cholesterol. EE alone or in combination with a progestin reduced the accumulation of cholesterol relative to placebo (P < 0.0001). Isolated vessels from EE-treated animals relaxed significantly more to physiological concentrations of acetylcholine than did placebo (P < 0.001), whereas vessels treated with EE plus a progestin showed an intermediate response. CONCLUSION: The progestins investigated can be combined with EE without attenuating the anti-atherogenic effect of EE.

      Key words: atherosclerosis/estrogen/progestins/rabbits/vascular reactivity

      Introduction
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      The question of whether oral contraceptive (OC) formulations increase the risk of arterial events (such as myocardial infarction) in younger women remains unsolved. Several recent case–control studies have reported an increased risk of myocardial infarction in women using OC compared with non-users (Jick et al., 1996; Lewis et al., 1996; 1997; World Health Organization, 1997; Lewis, 1998; Dunn et al., 1999; 2001; Farley et al., 1999; Tanis et al., 2001; Rosendaal et al., 2002), although other recent data have not confirmed this observation (Sidney et al., 1998). Recent European studies have indicated that OC use is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, in contrast to US studies that found no increased risk among OC users (Lewis 1998; Sidney et al., 1998). Only a few studies have directly compared the effect on myocardial infarction of OC formulations containing a second-generation progestin (levonorgestrel) with those containing third-generation progestins (desogestrel or gestodene) (Jick et al., 1996; Lewis et al., 1996; 1997; World Health Organization, 1997; Dunn et al., 2001; Tanis et al., 2001), but they were all designed as case–control studies; the reported relative risk in these studies varies (between 0.3 and 1.8), and the numbers are small.

      The relative preponderance in venous events (e.g. deep venous thrombosis) as compared with arterial events (e.g. myocardial infarction) in pre-menopausal women is gradually equalized as the menopause is reached, so that the relative frequency of these events is close to 1:1 in peri-menopausal women. Since OC are prescribed for millions of pre-menopausal (and peri-menopausal) women who use these formulations for many years, it would be of the utmost public health importance to establish even a small increase in the relative risk. Therefore, the issue of OC in relation to arterial disease is highly relevant. It should be borne in mind, however, that it is possible that for both OC and HRT users, there may be prothrombotic mechanisms in relation to arterial as well as venous complications that are not necessarily based on atherosclerosis, but that are reflected in the population-based studies. Primary (Rossouw et al., 2002) and secondary (Grady et al., 2002) prevention studies of HRT have failed to show cardioprotection in post-menopausal women.

      We report here the results from an experimental study in rabbits of atherosclerosis designed to investigate the effect of estrogen (ethinyl estradiol, EE) in combination with levonorgestrel (LNG), desogestrel (DSG), or gestodene (GSD) on vascular reactivity, lipoprotein metabolism, and the aortic accumulation of cholesterol.

      Materials and methods
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      Study design
      A total of 160 sexually mature female rabbits of the Danish Country strain (SSC:CPH) were obtained from Statens Serum Institute, Denmark. They were individually housed at room temperature (20 ± 2°C), a relative humidity of 55 ± 5%, and with a 12 h light cycle. The study was conducted in the animal facilities at the Center for Clinical & Basic Research (CCBR), Ledoeje, Denmark. After a 2 week period of acclimatization, the animals underwent bilateral ovariectomy to inhibit intrinsic production of sex hormones (Alexandersen et al., 1998). One week after surgery, the rabbits were then randomly assigned to one of the following eight treatment groups: (i) a cholesterol-rich diet (320 mg/day), either given alone (placebo), or together with (ii) EE (orally, 70 µg/day), (iii) DSG (orally, 525 µg/day), (iv) GSD (orally, 262.5 µg/day), (v) LNG (orally, 525 µg/day), (vi) EE continuously combined with DSG (doses as above) (EE + DSG), (vii) EE continuously combined with LNG (doses as above) (EE + LNG), or (viii) EE continuously combined with GSD (doses as above) (EE + GSD). We did not include a sham-operated group in this study as it was previously shown that sham operation per se in rabbits results in a mean accumulation of cholesterol that was not statistically significant from that of the non-treated control group (Haarbo et al., 1992). Hormone doses used in this study were chosen based on previous experience with these doses (the McPhail test in rabbits; EE, LNG and DSG) (van der Vies and de Visser, 1983; Sulistiyani et al., 1995; Zandberg et al., 2001) or from in-house studies (GSD). The EE dose used was kept constant in all EE groups throughout the study period (31 weeks). We used the rabbit to evaluate the effect of sex steroids on atherogenesis because it is known to be a useful model of experimental atherosclerosis (Haarbo et al., 1991; 1992; Sulistiyani et al., 1995).

      Key effect variables of the study comprised aortic atherosclerosis (i.e. fatty streaks and plaque formation), and vascular reactivity (primary key variables); and body weight, serum lipids and lipoproteins, uterus wet weight, hepatic cholesterol content, uterine estrogen receptor content, liver enzyme concentration, haemoglobin, and white cell count (secondary key variables).

      The study was approved and overviewed by the Experimental Animals Committee under the Danish Ministry of Justice. All procedures complied with the Danish guidelines for experimental animal studies.

      Rabbit chow
      Each rabbit was fed 100 g of chow per day throughout the entire study. The cholesterol-rich chow was prepared by first dissolving the hormone or the combination of hormones (all provided by N.V. Organon, The Netherlands) in ethanol (96%; 0.50 ml per animal per day), then mixing with maize oil (Unikem, Denmark). Another mixture was prepared by dissolving cholesterol (SIGC-8503; Bie & Berntsen A/S, Denmark) in maize oil by slow heating. The hormone solution and the cholesterol solution containing maize oil (total daily intake of maize oil was 8 ml per animal) were then mixed manually together with the pellets (Altromin 2123, Brogaarden, Denmark), as previously described (Alexandersen et al., 1998). Food consumption was monitored weekly by weighing remaining chow. All animals had free access to water.

      Blood samples
      Blood samples were taken at baseline (week 0) and in weeks 6, 14 and 30. Blood samples were collected from a lateral ear vein on fasting animals (24 h) and analysed at the CCBR laboratory (Ballerup, Denmark) immediately after collection, except for the progestin concentrations that were assessed at Organon.

      Safety variables
      Haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell count, leukocyte count (Sysmex K-1000; Toa Medical Electronics, Inc., USA) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) (Cobas Mira Plus; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., F.Hoffmann–La Roche, Switzerland) were determined in weeks 0, 6, 14 and 30.

      Serum lipids and lipoproteins
      Total serum cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured enzymatically by kinetic colorimetric methods (Cobas Mira). Ultracentrifuged lipoproteins were determined regularly throughout the study as described in detail elsewhere (Haarbo et al., 1991; 1992; Alexandersen et al., 1998).

      Serum progestin concentrations
      A kinetic study was performed after 16 weeks of treatment to determine the serum concentrations of the respective progestins. Blood samples were taken before dosing, and then again 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h after dosing, but taking only two samples per animal in each group (providing 40 samples per group), to give an impression of the pharmacokinetic profile of these compounds. These hormone concentrations were determined at Organon’s laboratories.

      Desogestrel
      DSG study samples were determined according to a validated assay. The limit of quantification for this study was 1.0–200 ng DSG per ml plasma DSG and its internal standard (IS), an analogue of DSG, were isolated from 0.1 ml of rabbit plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C-18 cartridges. The plasma extracts were analysed using an API 365 LC-MS-MS system. The liquid chromatograph was equipped with an analytical Luna Phenyl Hexyl column. Ion spray was applied as ionization technique, monitoring m/z 325.4 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 147.2 for DSG and m/z 339.20 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 229.1 for its IS.

      Gestodene
      GSD study samples were determined according to a validated assay. The limit of quantification for this study was 1.0–200 ng of GSD per ml plasma. GSD and its IS, an analogue of GSD, were isolated from 0.1 ml of rabbit plasma by SPE with C-18 cartridges. The plasma extracts were analysed using an API 365 LC-MS-MS system. The liquid chromatograph was equipped with an analytical Hypersil BDS C18 column. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was applied as ionization technique, monitoring m/z 311.0 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 109.1 for GSD and m/z 339.10 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 229.20 for its IS.

      Levonorgestrel
      LNG study samples were determined according to a validated assay. The limit of quantification for this study was 1.0–200 ng of LNG per ml plasma. LNG and its IS, an analogue of LNG, were isolated from 0.1 ml of rabbit plasma by SPE with C-18 cartridges. The plasma extracts were analysed using an API 365 LC-MS-MS system. The liquid chromatograph was equipped with an analytical Luna Phenyl Hexyl column. Ion spray was applied as ionization technique, monitoring m/z 313.3 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 109.2 for LNG and m/z 339.20 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 229.10 for its IS.

      Aortic accumulation of cholesterol
      Necropsy (week 32) was done with an i.v. injection of 1–2 ml of mebumal (pentobarbital) 20% solution. The thoracic aorta (just above the aortic valves to the level of the diaphragm) was dissected free, and the connective tissue adhering to the adventitia was then carefully removed under running saline. The aorta was cut longitudinally and the luminal surface was rinsed with saline. The vessel was fixed at the corners with pins onto a piece of paper on a corkboard. The tissue was separated in two parts (a proximal and a distal part) at the level of the first intercostal arteries. The proximal part was utilized to strip the luminal layer containing the intima and part of the media from the underlying media/adventitia. The proximal part was weighed and stored at –20°C until analysed. For analysis, the luminal layer of the aortic tissue was minced and the lipids were extracted chemically with chloroform and methanol (2:1, vol/vol) over 24 h. The lipids were separated from the proteins (Haarbo et al., 1991). The total aortic cholesterol content in the tissue specimens was measured enzymatically after the fraction containing cholesterol had been taken to dryness by heating and then dissolved in 1.0 ml of 2-propanol. The amount of protein in the aorta was measured as described by Lowry (1951). The weight of the heart was recorded.

      Morphometric analysis of aortic plaque area
      The aorta (comprising the ascendant part, the arch, and the descendant part, from the aortic valves and to the first intercostal artery) was opened longitudinally and rinsed in 50% ethanol and dyed in Sudan Red for 1 min. Each aortic tissue dyed was projected onto a horizontal surface with a projecting videocamera (JAI 2040 Protec, Japan) and videotaped under microscope (Zeiss Stemi 2000/C, Germany). The images obtained were then digitized (ImagePro Plus, USA) to determine the surface involvement of atherosclerotic lesions (fatty streaks) and the total area occupied by the atheroma plaque (see below). Surface involvement by atherosclerosis in an animal was assessed by tracing the contours of the lumen expressed as percentage of the total aortic area. Summing the degree of surface involvement per animal and dividing by the number of animals in the group, the mean degree of surface involvement by atherosclerosis in a treatment group was calculated. Sudan Red was found not to significantly interfere with chemical determination of aortic accumulation of cholesterol (data not shown).

      Preparation of aortic rings and tension monitoring
      Isolated vascular segments (3–4 mm transverse sections) from the thoracic aorta were prepared from the newly killed rabbit (Furchgott and Zawadzki 1980). Five to ten rabbits randomly selected from each group were used. The rings were immediately placed in ice-cold Krebs’ solution and cleaned under careful protection of the endothelium. The Krebs’ solution consisted of (mmol/l): NaCl 118.0, KCl 4.7, CaCl2 2.6, MgSO4 1.2, KH2PO4 1.2, NaCHO3 24.9, and glucose 11.1. The isolated rings were mounted in the organ bath on two parallel and horizontal stainless steel wires (40 µm in diameter) inserted into the lumen of the vessel. The bath contained Krebs’ solution at 37°C, carbonized with 95%/5% of O2/CO2. One hook was fixed, and the other connected to a force transducer measuring the isometric tension of the ring (Myograph 400; JP Trading A/S, Denmark). Initially, the rings were stretched to a basal tension of 2.0 g and allowed to equilibrate for 45 min. From other experiments, it was found that a basal tension of 2.0 g developed the maximal active tension in the rings (data not shown), and the basal tension was therefore increased to 2.0 g before each experiment and allowed to equilibrate for ≥30 min. The rings were then contracted twice with a 126 mmol/l K+ Krebs’ solution, which is identical to Krebs solution, except that Na+ in the Krebs’ was exchanged with K+ on a molar basis. The experiment began with repeated contraction with phenylephrine to 40% of their maximal contraction with high dose potassium (126 mmol/l). Cumulative dose–response curves to acetylcholine were then obtained in the concentration range of 10–8 to 10–5 mol/l. The rings were washed and allowed to relax. The vessels were then stimulated with phenyleprine again to 50% of the maximal contractile response to 126 mmol/l of K+ , and dose–response curves were subsequently obtained for sodium nitroprusside (4x10–8 to 1.3x10–5 mol/l).

      Liver accumulation of cholesterol
      The amount of cholesterol accumulated during the study was determined after homogenization of a liver biopsy taken at the time of necropsy. Hepatic cholesterol concentrations were assessed after homogenization and adjusted for hepatic protein similarly as described for aortic cholesterol determinations (Haarbo et al., 1991).

      The uterus and endometrial tissue
      The bicornuate uterus was cut at the level of the vagina and beginning of the salpinges, removed and the wet weight determined. A sample of endometrial tissue was excised and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at –85°C until analysis. For analysis, the endometrial tissue was homogenized and centrifuged at 800 g. The supernatant was then further centrifuged at 105 000 g, and the obtained supernatant (cytosol) was used for determination of cytosolic estrogen-binding capacity by steroid-binding assay with dextran-coated charcoal separation (Thorpe, 1987). The estrogen-binding capacity was adjusted for the protein concentration in the cytosol (Bradford, 1976). The 800 g pellet was washed, the nuclear receptors extracted by 0.6 mol/l KCl (Thorpe et al., 1986) and the nuclear estrogen receptor content determined by an enzyme immunoassay (Abott Laboratories). The inter-assay variation of the estrogen-binding capacity and the estrogen receptor (immunoassay) and protein determination were 7, 6 and 5% respectively. All analyses were done without knowledge of the treatment group.

      Statistics
      The mean levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins during the treatment period were calculated as the area under the curve (AUC). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for the primary and secondary key variables. If ANOVA indicated statistical significance, Student’s t-test was used to compare groups against the placebo group using Dunnett’s correction for multiple comparisons. The relationship between aortic accumulation of cholesterol and the averaged serum total cholesterol (and lipoprotein) level was determined by correlation analysis. Dose–response curves for acetylcholine were performed for each treatment group (n = 5–10), and ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences among groups at each concentration of acetylcholine. Linear correlation was performed between accumulation of cholesterol and vascular response to acetylcholine. Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to investigate the significance of serum lipids and lipoproteins and of other non-lipid-mediated effects of the hormone treatments (independent variables) on the accumulation of cholesterol (dependent variable), and to study the degree of endothelial dysfunction (dependent variable) after correction for aortic accumulation of cholesterol and treatment (independent variables). All statistical analyses were performed with 5% as the level of significance.

      Results
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      Table I gives the baseline characteristics for the eight study groups in terms of body weight and serum lipids and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There was no statistically significant difference among groups for any variable tested. During the study, all groups significantly increased the body weight by 20% (P < 0.05). Treatment with DSG, GSD, or LNG did not significantly affect the average TC concentration (Table II). However, treatment with EE or EE plus a progestin significantly lowered average TC concentrations. Changes in TC were paralleled by modifications in the atherogenic lipoproteins (LDL-C, IDL-C, and VLDL-C) (ANOVA: P < 0.001 for all), and all hormone treatments (progestins alone or in combination with EE) significantly increased average HDL-C concentrations (ANOVA: P < 0.001).

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      Table I. Baseline characteristics

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      Table II. Mean (SEM) serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations calculated from the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)

      Cholesterol feeding per se resulted in an extensive aortic accumulation of cholesterol (nmol/mg wet weight) and this was significantly attenuated by long-term treatment with EE (P < 0.0001) or EE plus a progestin (P 0.5}.

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      Figure 1. Individual values for the aortic accumulation of cholesterol (µmol/mg wet weight) (upper part of the figure) or the morphometric data based on the area of the aortic arch covered by plaque (lower part of the figure) in the eight groups. EE = ethinyl estradiol; DGS = desogestrel; GTD = gestodene; LNG = levonorgestrel. Rabbits treated with EE alone or in combination with a progestin (DSG, GSD or LNG) had significantly lower accumulation of cholesterol and atherosclerotic plaque than placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the progestin groups and the placebo group. ***P < 0.0001 (analysis of variance).

      Morphometric analysis of the plaque covering the surface of the thoracic aorta revealed that there were significantly more atheromatous lesions in the placebo group than in the EE and the EE + progestin groups (P < 0.001 for all groups versus placebo) (Figure 1 and Figure 2). This still held true after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P < 0.0001).

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      Figure 2. Representative samples of the aortic arches used for morhometric determination of the area covered by atherosclerotic plaques. Upper panel shows examples from the placebo group (cholesterol feeding alone; placebo), and the ethinyl estradiol (EE) group; whereas the lower panel shows examples from each of the EE + progestin groups. There was significantly less plaque accumulated in the EE group and the EE + progestin groups compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). Numbers indicate animal identifications.

      Figure 3 shows the EC50 to acetylcholine for the various treatment groups (top). There was no significant difference between groups, but treatment with EE and EE plus a progestin tended to have lower EC50 values than controls. The response to two physiological doses of acetylcholine (1.0x10–7 and 3.2x10–7 mol/l) in precontracted vessels is shown (centre and bottom). Vessels treated with EE relaxed significantly more to acetylcholine than control vessels or vessels with a progestin alone (P < 0.05). Moreover, combining EE with a progestin relaxed the vessels significantly more than control vessels but to a lesser extent than with EE alone. Vasorelaxation to physiological concentrations of acetylcholine (1.0x10–7 and 3.2x10–7 mol/l) correlated significantly and inversely to aortic accumulation of cholesterol (r = –0.39 P = 0.002 and r = –0.37 P = 0.004 respectively). To study the influence of increasing accumulation of cholesterol on the endothelial dysfunction evaluated by vascular reactivity in vitro, ANCOVA was done. We found that treatment with EE significantly and independently of aortic accumulation of cholesterol restored vasorelaxation {for EE: estimate [mean (SEM)] was 49.3 (10.4)%, P = 0.0001}, whereas the other treatments with EE plus a progestin or a progestin alone [DSG, –7.7 (9.2)% (not significant); GSD, –8.5 (9.1)% (not significant); LNG, –3.2 (9.7)% (not significant); EE + DSG, 17.7 (9.4)% (P = 0.065); EE + GSD, 13.2 (10.2)% (not significant); and EE ± LNG, 17.0 (8.8)% (P = 0.058)], or accumulation of cholesterol per se [–0.1 (0.2)%] did not.

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      Figure 3. The EC50 values for acetylcholine of isolated vessels for the treatment groups (top). There was no significant difference between groups, but treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE) alone or combined with a progestin tended to have lower EC50 values than the placebo group. Long-term treatment with EE alone or combined with a progestin relaxed precontracted vessels to two physiological doses of acetylcholine [1.0x10–7 mol/l (centre) and 3.2x10–7 mol/l (bottom) significantly more than control vessels (black bar; P < 0.0001)]. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

      The uterine wet weight was significantly higher in EE-treated animals than in controls (P < 0.0001; Figure 4). Progestins had a neutral effect on uterine wet weight, while EE in combination with any of the progestins significantly increased the wet weight indicating that the progestins with the doses used were not able to completely abolish the stimulatory effect of EE on this target organ (Figure 4). The uterine cytosolic estrogen receptor (ER) concentrations were significantly lowered in the EE group (P < 0.0001) and also in each of the EE plus progestin groups (P < 0.001–0.0001) relative to the placebo group, but also the progestins alone resulted in reduced concentrations compared with controls (P < 0.001) (Table III). For the nuclear ER concentrations there was no significant differences for any of the treatment groups, but all were lower than the control group.

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      Figure 4. Uterine wet weight for the rabbits according to treatment. The wet weight was significantly higher in ethinyl estradiol (EE)-treated animals than in the control group (P < 0.0001). Progestins themselves had a neutral effect on uterine wet weight, while EE in combination with a progestin all significantly increased the wet weight (P < 0.0001). Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

      View this table:
      [in this window]
      [in a new window]
      Table III. Hepatic cholesterol content and uterine cytosolic and uterine nuclear estrogen receptor content (fmol/mg protein)

      Safety aspects in relation to the study
      Figure 5 shows that the rabbits receiving EE or EE plus a progestin had concentration peaks for the progestin between 1 and 8 h after administration, as based on the kinetic study. The differences in the area under the curve for LNG versus DSG, and EE + LNG versus EE + DSG respectively, indicate a difference in the serum concentrations of these two progestins and may, in part, reflect difference in protein binding. Nevertheless, the serum concentrations of LNG in rabbits are similar to those reported for women (Kook et al., 2002).

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      Figure 5. Mean concentrations in serum (ng/ml) of the various progestins alone or when combined with ethinyl estradiol. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

      During the last 6–8 weeks, the animals and particularly those in the EE group ceased increasing in body weight probably as a result of general health deterioration, and in the EE group a significant number of rabbits (n = 8) did not complete the study. Autopsy of these animals suggested a toxic estrogenic effect of the liver (liver cirrhosis) and of the uterus (probably deciduocarcinoma) by macroscopic examination, as previously reported as a consequence of exogenous estrogens (Janne et al., 2001). Due to decay of the internal organs the precise cause of death could not be determined in most cases. Table IV summarizes the percentage change in ALAT, haemoglobin, and white cell count. In the EE group, eight rabbits died prematurely (mostly after week 20). The temporary increase in ALAT (week 6) in the LNG, EE + DSG, EE + GSD, and EE + LNG groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment, but never fully returned to pretreatment values (Table IV). The general health of the animals in the EE group as determined by the haemoglobin, red blood cell count and haematocrit (not shown), and clinical appearance deteriorated in the last period of the study, probably as a result of a toxic effect of the EE dose used.

      View this table:
      [in this window]
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      Table IV. Mean (SEM) percentage changes from baseline in liver enzyme concentration, haemoglobin, and white cell count

      Discussion
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      The principal results of this experimental study was that EE either alone or in continuous combination with one of the progestins used, i.e. LNG, DSG or GSD, significantly inhibited the aortic accumulation of cholesterol relative to placebo (cholesterol-feeding alone), whereas treatment with progestin monotherapy had a neutral effect on atherogenesis, irrespective of the progestin used. After adjustment for lipids and lipoproteins, there still was an apparently inhibitory effect of EE on aortic accumulation of cholesterol suggesting a lipid concentration-independent mechanism of action for EE on atherogenesis. A previous study in non-human monkeys also found that animals treated with EE in combination with LNG (as a triphasic OC formulation) had significantly less iliac artery atherosclerosis than control animals (Kaplan et al., 1995). Extrapolating experimental data to the human situation should be done with caution, but only two population-based studies have been specifically designed to investigate the role of second versus third generation OC formulations on the risk of myocardial infarction (Dunn et al., 1999; Tanis et al., 2001). In the study by Dunn et al., the relative risk was found to be increased with third generation compared with second generation OC formulations [OR, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7–4.8)], whereas in the study by Tanis et al. the relative risk was found to be decreased with third generation compared with second generation formulations [OR, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–1.1]. In addition, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (smoking and arterial hypertension) seems to be crucial for development of myocardial infarction in women taking OC (World Health Organization, 1997; Farley et al., 1998; Lewis, 1998; Petitti et al., 2000; Tanis et al., 2001). In fact, the WHO study found no increased risk of myocardial infarction in non-smoking women with no other cardiovascular risk factors who also reported blood pressure check before starting use of combined OC. Controlled, randomized studies are therefore clearly needed, although these studies will be of a considerable size taking into account the expected low incidence of myocardial infarction in pre-menopausal women (Crook and Godsland, 1998), and consequently such trials are very expensive to perform. Therefore, until clinical data on vascular endpoints are available, experimental animal studies may provide important clues in terms of the effect of various OC formulations on atherogenesis.
      Data on the direct effect of OC formulations on the human arterial system are lacking (Kuhl, 1996). We found evidence that the OC formulations used in this study had a direct effect on the arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Acetylcholine-mediated relaxation of precontracted aortic rings was increased in the EE plus progestin groups, although less than in the EE group alone as compared with placebo. EE’s significant effect on restoring vasorelaxation was found to be independent of the accumulation of cholesterol in the aortic wall. However, we also found that the addition of the progestins influenced the estrogen-induced vasorelaxation (Figure 3), although by an unknown mechanism of action. Recently, in a study of precontracted rabbit jugular veins, EE, LNG, DSG and GSD were reported to induce relaxations in vessels with intact endothelium (Herkert et al., 2000). However, this area warrants further investigation.

      It is well known that cholesterol-fed rabbits show alterations in their lipoprotein metabolism that differ from the human situation (Haarbo et al., 1991; 1992). Combination of EE with a progestin in this study reflected the estrogenic effect. Furthermore, the three combined treatments lowered serum lipids and the atherogenic lipoprotein levels significantly and similarly to EE monotherapy. In contrast, treatment with a progestin alone did not affect these variables differently from the controls, in accordance with earlier findings (Haarbo et al., 1992). In women, OC frequently increases serum triglycerides (Gevers Leuven et al., 1990; Kuhl et al., 1990; Leuven et al., 1990; Lobo et al., 1996; Cheung et al., 1999).

      The dose of EE was selected to reflect serum concentrations of EE in peri-menopausal women taking OC. However, the duration of the present study was longer than in many previous studies (20 weeks). Among the animals receiving EE alone, 40% died after only ≥21 weeks of treatment, whereas animals given combined treatment did not die prematurely. This suggests that the accumulated estrogen dose may have been too high and/or the study too long, as also indicated by the safety variables of the EE-treated animals at week 30 (Table IV), but also that adding a progestin was able to negate this toxic effect. Progestins were used in equipotent doses (i.e. in combination with EE they inhibit endometrial stimulation equally in humans) relative to each other. The selected dose of the progestins (µg per kg body weight) was chosen based on previous experience (van der Vies and de Visser, 1983; Sulistiyani et al., 1995; Zandberg et al., 2001) and in-house studies (in Organon), but may be considered as high doses. All three OC formulations significantly decreased the concentration of the cytosolic ER concentration relative to controls, suggesting that these formulations affect the endometrium through a down-regulation of the cytosolic ER. Addition of a progestin in this study also down-regulated the ER although less than found for EE, and when combining EE with a progestin, the estrogen component dominated the ER regulation. It should, however, be emphasized that the lack of modifying effect of the progestins relative to the EE dose on the endometrium should not be taken as a lack of progestogenic effect, since the primary intention was to investigate the effect of these hormone combinations on atherosclerosis and arterial responsiveness.

      A type II statistical error is not likely to have occurred in our study. However, the accumulation of cholesterol (and amount of fatty streaks) in the EE group was significantly lower than that of the placebo animals. For a type II error to occur, the null hypothesis (that there was no difference in aortic accumulation of cholesterol between the EE and the placebo group) would not be true, and despite this, we would obtain a non-significant result, i.e. a ‘false negative’ result.

      In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in ovariectomized cholesterol-fed rabbits, the progestins investigated (LNG, DSG, or GSD) can be combined with EE without attenuating the anti-atherogenic effect of EE, partly by decreasing atherogenic lipoproteins, and partly by a direct effect on the endothelium, modulating the aortic vasomotor response in vitro.

      References
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      Results
      Discussion
      References

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      Submitted on December 13, 2002; resubmitted on February 20, 2003; accepted on March 25, 2003.

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  30. QUESTION:
    I have a vitamin D deficiency and i was wondering if i take vitamin d everyday will my hair start growin back?
    I am 19 year old girl i used to have super thick hair and its been falling out alot and i went to the doctors and they told me i had a deficiency of vit.D and i was wondering if i keep taking it will my hair grow back eventually?

    • ANSWER:
      Vitamin D is NOT THE only reason why hair grows. You need: Zinc, Cooper, Vitamin B12, Vitamin A, Biotin, and Folic Acid.

      Google: "Foods for Healthy Hair" - the website had moved, type it in. Two others also:
      http://www.webmd.com/skin-beauty/features/top-10-foods-for-healthy-hair
      http://www.menshealth.com/spotlight/hair/best-food-for-healthy-hair.php
      Fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains all supply B-complex vitamins, like biotin, folic acid and vitamin B12, as well as vitamin A, copper and zinc, which are all necessary for remedying dry, brittle hair and nourishing a healthy scalp. Some prime examples of foods that contain these nutrients for healthy hair include:
      ·                     Folic Acid - asparagus, beets, broccoli, avocados, Brussels sprouts, beans, chickpeas, soybeans, lentils, oranges, fresh peas, turkey and spinach.
      ·                     Biotin - cauliflower, liver, salmon, carrots, bananas, cereals, yeast, and soy flour. Keep in mind that biotin content is reduced when food is cooked or preserved.
      ·                     Vitamin B12 - foods rich in vitamin B12 include animal protein (such as beef, lamb, and veal), clams and oysters, liver, fish, milk, and egg yolks.
      ·                     Vitamin A - butter, egg yolks, fish, fortified milk, organ meats (such as
      liver), and dark green, orange, red, and yellow fruits (persimmons) and vegetables, which all
      contain beta-carotene.
      . Copper - oysters and other shellfish, whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes and organ meats are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such
      as prunes, cocoa, black pepper, and yeast are also sources of copper in the diet.
      •  Zinc – beef, eggs, liver, pork, poultry, and oysters. Also is also abundant in other high-protein foods, like cheese, legumes and nuts.
      If having a lush, beautiful mane of healthy hair is important to you, don’t just look to hot oil treatments and shine emollients. Eat these foods for healthy hair and say “bye-bye” to bad hair days.

      BUT . . . .It may grow very slowly or none at all if you've straightened your hair in the past.

      DID YOU SAY they have been falling out alot? Find the 'cause' before you can find the solution, then eliminate them. Your hair will improve. Remember, whatever it was that caused them to fall out in the first place, it took years to get in your system, it will takes years to flush them down, so don't expect miracles overnight.

      So many reasons for hair loss:

      Supplements, steroids, hereditary, hair dyes perming, straightening, diet, having babies (yes I read once it happened to her), stress, medications with testosterone, certain antidepressants, menopause, anti-acne, and too much of everything. Add to that the 7,000 + toxic found in your home, plus pollution found outdoors. Your hair is crying for help!

      Doctors don't know everything, they will just prescribe you a white little pill and everything are OK then they go to their next patient. My mother had suffered for 21 years, and they didn't even told her she's got cancer, until we rushed her to ER, then they did more testing, but by then she's got 3 months to live.

      Sources:
      I know hair. I have 4 decades of hair know-how. I have silky, shiny, soft, smooth very healthy hair down to my knees. Previously damaged by perming & dyeing in the 80's & 90's. I've known people in their 30's whose hair stopped growing from ironing their hair in the 70's.

  31. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to betaking the pill, have your period and still be pregnant?
    I have been feeling very hungry, nauseous, and depressed randomly. My fiancee did leave for basic last week but thats not why I am depressed I kno it. But I have been taking the pills kind of late sometimes but I do take them everyday. I just had my period last week, but I still think I might be pregnant. Is it possible?

    • ANSWER:
      It isn't typical, but not impossible. Women do get pregnant while taking the pill and it reacts differently with different women. In my own personal case, my youngest was conceived quite unexpectedly when I was reliably taking birth control pills for 11 years. I had no idea I was pregnant. My doctor discovered the pregnancy at my yearly physical. I'd been having what seemed like normal periods so I needed an ultrasound to check gestation. We were all shocked when it showed I was 17 weeks along already. In that time frame I had 2 periods that seemed normal in every way from when they started to how long they lasted and the level of flow. The period I had just before my appointment came at the usual time but was lighter and shorter than usual. At first my doctor wondered if I was beginning perimenopause since I was 38 and early menopause runs in my family. She seemed rather puzzled when she did my internal exam and said it was odd that my cervix felt like I was pregnant. At first we both chuckled over the absurdity of the idea (my older kids were 18, 15, and 12), but she made me pee in a cup just to "rule out" a pregnancy. She was nearly as surprised as I was when the nurse brought in a positive test result. So, yes, it can happen that a woman taking birth control pills gets pregnant and has period-like bleeding. When taken as directed, though, birth control pills are pretty reliable. Statistically, if you are taking birth control pills daily (even if not always at the exact time) and you've had a normal period the chance you are still pregnant is pretty small. It's easy enough to take a home pregnancy test to see for sure. The hormones in birth control pills will not interfere with the test detecting the pregnancy hormone, hCG, in your urine.

  32. QUESTION:
    I have been brown spotting, feel bloated, cramps come and go and dont remember my last period.?
    I have taken a home pregnancy test twice w/ neg
    result. Could i be pregnant?

    • ANSWER:
      Could be a number of things. 1. Sometimes when we are waiting for our period, we stress our body out and we tend to miss a period, so relax. 2. Now depending on your age, if you are older you could be going through menopause.

      Most women when in the early stages of pregnancy will notice their breasts have become very tender to the touch. Much like how they felt when going through puberty. Another indication of pregnancy is that you will find yourself going to the bathroom many times in the night, like when you are trying to sleep.

      I am sure you are not pregnant, however, if you want to be certain, then I would suggest you go to your doctor and have them do a blood and urine test.

  33. QUESTION:
    What age does first heat usually happen?
    I just got a 9 month old shihtzu and I was wondering when is the first heat? I can't get her spayed because the vet said it would be a bigger risk because her rib cage is deformed and when her lungs expand he said damage could be done and so she is at an increased risk death during surgery so I need an idea of when first heat also how often do they go into heat. Normally I have the dogs fixed around 6 months so I can't remember when first heat is or how often.

    • ANSWER:
      1. What is heat?

      Heat is more properly called the estrous cycle. During this cycle, female dogs may get pregnant. It’s equivalent to human menstruation.

      2. What are the symptoms?

      Females bleed from the vagina sometimes with swelling of the vulva and increased urination. Don’t expect bleeding comparable to a human female.

      For small dogs, it’s usually not much and you may need to pay close attention to your puppy to identify her first cycle. Other than the bleeding, the most noticeable symptom may be male dogs hanging around your house.

      3. When does a dog come into heat?

      The average female dog has her first cycle about six months of age. A few dogs start earlier and few dogs later, even as late as 14-months.

      If you have a new female puppy, you should watch her and note when she has her first cycle. If she’s 14-months old and still hasn’t’t been in heat, you should take her to a veterinarian.

      4. How long does the heat cycle last?

      The average is three weeks or 21-days. In some dogs, it lasts only two weeks while others go four weeks.

      5. How often will she be in heat?

      Most female dogs have regular cycles usually every six to eight months. It’s quite typical to be in heat twice a year.

      6. When can she get pregnant?

      She can get pregnant only when in heat. Some breeders test for progesterone levels to identify the most fertile days but the rule-of-thumb is that the most fertile days are 11-15 of her cycle.

      Note – when she’s in heat, the average dog will permit any male dog to mount her. Few females, however, will accept a male when they’re not in heat.

      7. Can she get pregnant her first cycle?

      Yes. However, responsible breeders generally would not breed a dog that early. For one thing, you need to do genetic testing and some serious problems such as hip conditions do not show up until a dog is approximately 2-years of age.

      8. Can I take her on walks during this cycle?

      Yes with care. She has no problem with the exercise but she’s a walking magnet for male dogs.

      Even the best trained and behaved female dog will succumb to hormones. You can’t trust her off a leash or out of your control. Never let her outside by herself even in a fenced yard if there is any possibility of male dogs nearby.

      For walks, if there are male dogs in your neighborhood, it’s a good idea to take your dog in your car and drive to a remote area. Take her for the walk there and drive back home. Otherwise, the scent of her urine and vaginal discharge will blaze a trail to your home.

      9. When I can have her spayed?

      The answer to that one has changed continually over the 25-years I’ve been in the dog business. People used to be told to let their dog go through at least one cycle or let them have one litter.

      Today, veterinarians are doing it much earlier. Some vets spay as early as 6-weeks of age! Talk to your veterinarian about your dog and the vet’s preferences. The state of veterinary medicine also is much improved over the past 25-years.

      10. If I don’t have her spayed, will she go through menopause.

      No. Her fertility may decline but she will not go through menopause comparable to a human’s. She won’t lose her ability to become pregnant even as a senior so if you don’t want to her to have any (or more) litters, she must be spayed.

  34. QUESTION:
    How long can a girl's menopause delayed?
    We did it on the 26th day from the first day her period started, and we had used a condom. But this month her period is delayed by almost 8 days. Today is the 38th day but the period hasn't started yet. Few days earlier though she had a blood spot which didn't continue. This has made us more worried. We carried out the home pregnancy test, the result is negative though. Can anyone suggest, if she might be pregnant?

    • ANSWER:

  35. QUESTION:
    How do the costs of steroids affect us?
    I'm doing a senoir thesis on "Athletes And Performance Enhancing Drugs: A Costly Combination" and I need some help.

    • ANSWER:
      Home Run 'Roids

      Beneath the buff

      Barry Bonds blasted his 715th career home run on Sunday, surpassing baseball legend Babe Ruth's total tally of 714. Bonds now stands second on the all-time home run list, behind another baseball legend--Henry "Hammerin' Hank" Aaron, who hit 755.

      Baseball people put Bonds among the all-time greats. But steroids have put him under a cloud. According to the San Francisco Chronicle, Bonds told a federal grand jury in 2003 that he used "clear" and "cream" substances his personal trainer said were a nutritional supplement and an arthritis balm. Yet prosecutors say "the clear" and "the cream" were steroids designed to foil steroid tests, and have put people in jail for making them.

      The investigation continues, as does Bonds's pursuit of Hank Aaron's home run record. Meanwhile, we're taking our own look at steroids. Turns out, when the media say "steroids," they almost always mean "androgenic-anabolic steroids," a collection of more than 100 synthetic drugs used by people hoping to boost muscle mass. Yet the generic term "steroids" actually covers a much larger group of substances--some of which you're "on" right now.

      Read My Lipids

      Along with lots of water, you're mostly made of four kinds of organic macromolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, and lipids. Proteins are long chains of amino acids that combine to do lots of jobs for the body. Carbohydrates are chains of sugar molecules strung together to store energy. Nucleic acid is the key ingredient in DNA. And lipids include a variety of naturally occurring steroids.

      Never heard of lipids? You may know them by their other names: oils, fats, and waxes. Some lipids store energy. Others help your body keep moisture in or out. Still others, the steroid hormones, carry chemical signals that help you regulate bodily functions.

      Name Your Steroids

      Your body produces steroid hormones in two major places: in your adrenal glands--located on top your kidneys--and in your reproductive organs--testes if you're male, ovaries if you're female. These steroid hormones do important work, but you may only know them by their aliases.

      Estradiol, a.k.a. estrogen, is a steroid that helps regulate the female menstrual and ovarian cycles. Cortisol, a.k.a. hydrocortisone, helps regulate inflammation and blood sugar levels. Cholecalciferol, a.k.a. vitamin D, helps regulate your calcium levels. There are others, too. And each derives from a "master" steroid you've surely heard of: cholesterol.

      Among the steroids we haven't mentioned is testosterone, a reproductive hormone that stimulates masculine traits. Testosterone is the natural steroid that androgenic-anabolic steroids (the ones that get all the bad press) try to imitate.

      Artificial Adolescence

      Both males and females produce testosterone. In females, testosterone levels remain relatively low throughout life--and often decrease, along with estrogen and progesterone levels, after menopause. In males, testosterone levels take off at adolescence, triggering the various changes that accompany puberty--including increased muscle mass.

      It's this adolescent effect that users of androgenic-anabolic steroids want. They take regular doses of testosterone-aping synthetic steroids to trick their bodies into producing muscle tissue as if they were adolescents again. How much more they get depends on dosage, participation in other muscle-building activities (such as weightlifting), and genetics.

      Yet users of androgenic-anabolic steroids also get some less-than-sexy side effects. Kidney damage, liver damage, and psychological problems are all common. Women often become more masculine. Men, strangely enough, often get the opposite. When artificial steroids trick a body into thinking it has lots of testosterone, it can stop making its own. Men then become more feminine, with shrunken testicles, fewer sperm, and bigger breasts. So much for feeling manly.

  36. QUESTION:
    how long is too long between menstral cycles?
    I am 44 yrs old,do not use birth control and have had sex recently.It has been 41 days since the first day of my last cycle.I took home test at 30 days past that was neg.Now what?

    • ANSWER:
      It's called menopause. You're going through it.

  37. QUESTION:
    What can I take to increase my libido?
    I am interested in increasing my libido, is there some pills for that?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello loptr,

      In today's fast-moving life, there is so much to take care of. Rent, bills, installments, deadlines, etc., and if you are a woman, the responsibility of a family, children, healthy diet, everything becomes so much that you just want to get home in the evening and rest. Of course, sex is the last thing on your mind at such times. So what should you do if you want to change your situation? What can you do to enhance your libido? There are many ways in which you can gain back the lost sex drive, both natural and medicinal.

      Causes of Low Libido
      Loss of libido is a common problem in women. Almost half the women population lose interest in having sex, though they do not have problem reaching orgasm. There can be many causes for this loss, both physical and psychological. Some of them are:

      The Psychological Reasons
      There are many psychological issues like tension, stress, depression and anxiety that lead to loss of interest. Some deeper problems like sexual abuse, rape, latent same-sex attractions are also responsible. Difficult living conditions and childhood trauma are some more psychological causes for the loss of interest.

      The Physical Reasons
      The most common reason that causes loss of sexual interest is drug and alcohol abuse. Diabetes, anemia and use of tranquilizers are also responsible for it. Many women also feel lack of interest in sex after pregnancy and childbirth. Contrary to general belief, menopause does not affect the desire to have sex.

      Natural Libido Enhancers
      Though there are some pills and medicines that can be used as libido enhancers, here are the natural remedies that can be easily used and are very effective. There are many helps that can be used to enhance the sex drive.
      •Ashwagandha is a herb that increases sexual energy. It is equivalent to ginseng and is quite effective.
      •Ginkgo biloba is a vasodilator and helps to increase blood flow to the genitals by increasing the levels of nitric oxide in the blood.
      •Epimedium sagittatum which is commonly known as horny goat weed also produces same effects of sexual simulation.
      •Hops extract is an estrogen enhancer and helps alleviate vaginal dryness. It increases lubrication to the genitals and provides relief from menopause symptoms.
      •Damiana extract helps to relax the body, alleviating stress and tiredness and helps to balance the hormones in females.
      •Ginger is also helpful in keeping the heart healthy and it increases the blood flow.
      Other Remedies
      Apart from the herbs mentioned above, there are other natural ways to increase the sexual urge and desire. It is a known fact that fragrances are good turn-ons for both men and women. For women, citrus, fruity and vanilla fragrances that are subtle and enticing, work best. Other fragrances like rose, sandalwood and cucumber are good mood enhancers as well. Another good way to enhance your sex life is food. Yes, food. The most famous of all aphrodisiac foods is of course the sensuous chocolate. Women are generally not able to resist the temptation of chocolate both dark and milk. Along with it, caviar, red wine, oyster, aromatic fruits like grapes, peaches and strawberry and dry fruits like resins and grapes are all tried and time tested mood enhancers for women.

      Mood enhancers help to induce desire and increase the libido. If you can get all that without any side effects, what more do you want. Conducive atmosphere, a low stress life and peace of mind are some other factors that keep the brain fresh and body rejuvenated during love making. Females who encounter issues related to loss of libido must not rely excessively on medicines but they must include natural ways in their lifestyle to get back their normal sex drive.

      TAKE CARE! Mama Bear

  38. QUESTION:
    If I go to the gynecologist, can she tell me how far I am from menopause?
    Currently, I am on my period. They are irregular sometimes I dont even have one. For the last 3 months I have had regular cycles. I am 43 yrs old and started having nite sweats and hot flashes. How do they know if I am menopausal or pre menopausal?

    • ANSWER:
      If you're not using any sort of hormone therapy including BCP's, then yes. It is a simple blood test series (usually 2-4 draws) that measure a hormone called FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone). If it drops below a certain level, it indicates that menopause is occurring (called "peri-menopause").

      You can do the same thing at home with a urine test called MenoCheck. It also checks for the same hormone as the blood test, but you won't have to go in to the office for several visits.

      The sites below have some great resources and information regarding menopause.

  39. QUESTION:
    WIll using a different brand of dye lessen my hair loss?
    Ive been using clairol natural instincts and im losing a TON OF HAIR. i feel like im balding. will using a different brand lessen the hair loss, or is it just that my hair cant take being dyed in general?

    • ANSWER:
      It is possible you could be allergic to the hair dye, and it doesn't matter if it's Clairol or Revlon, or products not tested on animals, because they still do.

      It is also possible that your hair loss is caused by:
      Supplements, steroids, hereditary, perming, straightening, medications with testosterone, certain antidepressants, menopause, anti-acne, and too much of everything. Add to that the 7,000 + toxics found in your home, plus pollution found outdoors. Your body is crying for help!

      They also say you normally lose 100-200 hair a day, but I don't. I lose about 7-8 every time I brush it, so that's about 100 per week, give or take.

      The majority of hair problems here are from girls in their 30s, asking how to care for their damaged hair, what product to make their hair grow, why their hair falls out, and why their shampoo or conditioner don't work. Women between 60-80 have that same problem, but it took them years to get there. And those same 30 & under girls are giving advice here? Go figure!

      Even the cheapest shampoo can do magic for your hair, so it must be what you're doing AFTER you wash it. Shampoos and vitamins might make your hair look and feel healthier, but they won’t put more hairs on your head.

      According Dr. Melissa Piliang, a dermatologist at the Cleveland Clinic. Americans spent an estimated 6 million on hair loss products last year, and chances are some of that money was not well spent. Don’t let charming salon owners, seductive ads or fancy gimmicks convince you otherwise.

      Source(s):
      Hair DX
      I know hair. I am in my early 60's, and I've been having menopause, and I am not experimenting hair loss, for those who said I don't know what I'm talking about when it comes to hair. I have silky, shiny, soft, smooth very healthy long hair. Previously damaged by perming & dyeing. What you see on my profile is what I have now. It's as thick as when I'm in my teens.

  40. QUESTION:
    Anyone know the causes of weird body temperatures when sleeping?
    When I go to sleep, I fall asleep pretty fast, I use no covers, but I wake up sweating, then when I take off my shirt and fall back to sleep, I wake up freezing, so I put my clothes back on, then I feel hot again. My home is a constant normal temperature, whats wrong with my body.
    All of you gave some real good answers. I sould add I'm a male in my 20's with pretty much no stress. Also, I do have Ulcerative Colitis

    • ANSWER:
      I am not trying to scare you, but there may be something going on with you and below is a list of possibilities. Please see your doctor for some tests. First thing I would check is the last on the list, a sleep apnea or sleep disorder which may have to do with hormonal changes (especially if you are an adolescent). It could just be your emotion and stress causing this or some other minor problem.

      The links below provided these possible causes as well as products to remedy the uncomfortable sleep your having. Normally our temperature changes about 1 degree in the night, it sounds like yours is much more drastic of a change and very uncomfortable so as to cause you to loose sleep.

      Potential serious causes:
      Acromegaly
      Andropause
      AIDS
      Acute Lymphoblastic
      Leukemia
      Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
      Brucellosis
      Breast Cancer
      Crohn's Disease
      Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
      Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
      Endocarditis
      Crocodile Blood
      Diabetes
      Diabetic Neuropathy
      Tuberculosis
      Hairy Cell Leukemia
      Hashimoto's Disease
      Hepatitis B
      Sarcoidosis
      Hodgkin's Disease
      Wegener's Granulomatosis
      Menopause
      Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis
      Human T Cell Leukemia
      Lymphotropic
      Ulcerative Colitis
      Pulmonary Edema
      Nocturnal Hypoglycemia
      Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
      Perimenopause
      Primary Hyperhidrosis
      Sleep Apnea
      Sleep Apnea and Phentermin

  41. QUESTION:
    what causes vaginal burning no discharge?
    I've had a bad vaginal burning sensation and it is not a UTI. No discharge. What could it be?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello

      It could be a number of things

      Irritation

      Most commonly, a burning vagina is a symptom of irritation. Irritation can be caused by many things. Usually the cause is right in your own home. Feminine hygiene products, toilet paper, cleansing wipes, or soaps that contain strong fragrances and dyes may irritate the vagina, because the chemicals used to make those products are too harsh for use on sensitive skin. That's one thing they don't warn you about on the label. If you find your vagina burning after using any of these products, switch to a plain, unscented variety. Douching can be another kind of vaginal irritant for much the same reason as the other products we discussed: harsh chemical ingredients. Using a douche also kills the healthy bacteria in your vagina, making you more likely to contract infections. If you feel like you have to douche, make a gentle homemade version using organic ingredients. Or a STD or hormonal changes.

      Yeast infections are a major cause of vaginal burning. This comes from the irritation of the vagina caused by the infection. It also comes from scratching the affected area because of the itching that accompanies such infections. Treatment for the yeast infection will generally do away with the vaginal burning.

      There are other causes of vaginal burning. Bacterial infections can also cause it. So can sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and Trichomonas, a parasitic infection. Then there are viral infections such as HIV and HPV, the latter of which can be detected with a Pap test.

      There are also noninfectious types of vaginitis. They are caused by irritation. This can come from chemicals, allergic reactions, or even clothes such as synthetic fabrics. Other noninfectious vaginitis is called atrophic vaginitis and is caused by decreased hormones when a woman is going through menopause, radiation therapy, has had her ovaries removed, or after childbirth. Vaginal burning often goes along with these cases.

      Yeast infections often follow such noninfectious types of vaginitis, because the vagina is irritated and so vulnerable to infection. This only adds to the vaginal burning in an already uncomfortable situation.

      Vaginal burning can come about as a result of poorly controlled diabetes. This is so common, in fact that patients with recurring yeast infections are often tested for diabetes. This is because yeast feeds on glucose and glycogen, two types of sugar in the body. When the sugars go up, the yeast also increases. When the yeast becomes an infection, it can cause vaginal burning.

      Peripheral Artery Disease, or PAD, can cause vaginal burning and discomfort. Even a cold can cause it. Also the use of some medications such as Loestrin 1/20, OrthoEvra, or Yasmin can cause vaginal burning.

      Because of the many serious diseases that are associated with vaginal burning, it usually wise to consult a physician to make sure it is not any of them. An exception to this rule is if a woman has had recurring yeast infections and knows exactly what her symptoms are and how to treat them herself. Also, if a woman knows precisely what is causing her vaginal burning, such as an irritation, and can eradicate it very quickly, there is no reason to go in to the doctor.

      Vaginal burning is, of course, a feeling of heat, rawness, and discomfort in the vaginal area. This can include the vulva, the labia, and the vagina itself. There are many causes of vaginal burning. Some of these reasons require medical attention and some of them just require understanding.

      Vaginal burning is not a pleasant occurrence. Usually, though, it is not very serious. Whether it is a yeast infection or from some other cause, vaginal burning can often be treated fairly easily.

      you could have Cystitis. Cystitis is an infection of the bladder and womem mostly get it. Urine is produced by your 2 kidneys and it then drains into your bladder via a tubes called your Ureters. When you have a wee your bladder contracts and squeezes urine out of your body through a tuba called your urethra. Cystitis is an infection of the bladder and is known as a lower urinary tract infection(UTI). If the infection spreads higher into your kidneys or ureters it is called an upper urinary tract infection which is more serious. I have had it spread to my kidneys and my lower back ached and I had the urge to wee all the time. It was a while ago but I think I was put on some antibiotics to get rid of it. But if you catch it soon enough you can be treated easily.

      Symptoms of cystitis

      Symptoms of cystitis include:

      * a stinging or burning sensation when you pass urine
      * the need to pass urine more often
      * feeling you want to urinate urgently, even if you pass very little or no urine
      * cloudy or dark coloured urine
      * blood in your urine
      * pain or tenderness in your lower back or lower abdomen (tummy)
      * feeling generally unwell

      My mum is always getting Cystitis and she normally gets it when travelling. Women get Cystitis more than men because their their urethra is near their anus and germs from the anus get into the urethra , when men's are much further away .

      You're more likely to get cystitis if you:

      * are sexually active - the risk increases the more often you have sex
      * use spermicide-coated condoms or a diaphragm with spermicide
      * have been through the menopause - causing changes to the lining of your vagina and urethra, making you more likely to have bacteria in your urine
      * have a urinary catheter - introducing bacteria directly into your bladder
      * have diabetes - your urine may contain more sugar, encouraging bacteria to grow
      * have a condition that prevents you from emptying your bladder such as bladder or kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or if you're pregnant
      * use irritants such as certain soaps, which may irritate your urethra or bladder

      If you're a woman and in good health, you may not need to see your GP, as cystitis often clears up by itself with home treatments. However you should contact your GP if:

      * your symptoms don't improve after two to three days
      * you have blood in your urine
      * you're pregnant or may be pregnant
      * you're over 65
      * you have a high temperature, feel sick or are vomiting
      * you have pain in your lower back or severe abdominal pain
      * the cystitis keeps coming back
      * you have other problems with your urinary system such as kidney stones or difficulty emptying your bladder
      * you have diabetes

      Self-help

      You can often treat cystitis yourself by doing the following.

      * Take an over-the-counter painkiller, such as paracetamol. Always read the patient information leaflet that comes with the medicine and if you have any questions, ask your pharmacist for advice.
      * Make your urine less acidic by drinking a glass of water with half a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda dissolved in it. Products that contain sodium bicarbonate or potassium citrate have the same effect and are available from your pharmacist. Always read the patient information that comes with your medicine and ask your pharmacist for advice if you have any questions.
      * Make sure you drink enough fluids to help flush out the infection.

      My mum takes these special sachets called Canesten . http://www.canesten.co.uk/cystitis/cystitis.htm?gclid=CK6gt-jvsaUCFYIe4QodP3EJWw

      She also takes cranberry capsules that help with the burning etc. The feeling of wanting to pee all the time and burning is not nice.

      Hope you feel better soon and hope this helps,

  42. QUESTION:
    What could cause my period to be 2 weeks late?
    I'm 23 years old. My period is 16 days late. I know I am 100% not pregnant cause the last time I had sex was in January and I've had periods since then... so I'm trying to figure out what things out there could make me this late. Thanks so much!

    • ANSWER:
      Is your period late? Are you wondering why your menstruation cycle is delayed or off? Do you know you are not pregnant but want to know why your period is late? Here are some reasons for a late period.

      Reason for a Late Period #1: Stress

      One of the biggest and most common reasons for a late (or early) menstrual cycle is stress. If you are facing a stressful time right now, it can affect your health in many ways, including delaying your period. A large amount of stress is your
      body can affect your hormones, thus delaying your period. So if you're facing alot of stress - say you've had a big project at work, or you've been very busy with school and finals, then your menstrual cycle may be off. Read "Stress Relief Tips for Moms" for some advice on handling stress. (Even if you are not a mom, it has some great advice.)

      Reason for a Late Period #2: Soy Consumption

      Have you been eating a lot of soy products? This can affect your menstrual cycle. Google "soy and menstrual cycle" to read more about how it affects your periods.

      Reason for a Late Period #3: Weight Loss or Being Underweight

      lf you are underweight, you will have a lower percentage of fat and it can affect your period. In some severe cases of anorexia, women will stop menstruating all together.

      Reason for a Late Period #4: Weight Gain or Being Overweight

      Being severely overweight can affect your menstrual cycles as well. Your hormones may be improperly balanced, but returning to a healthy weight can help your periods become regular again. Ask your doctor for more information.

      Reason for a Late Period #5: Exercise

      Did you recently start exercising frequently? If so, it can have an affect on your periods. Some very athletic women may go months without a regular period. This is addition to weight loss can have an big effect on your menstrual cycle.

      Reason for a Late Period #6: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

      Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome can cause irregular periods. This is a disorder where the ovaries contain many small cysts. For more information on this condition, or if you suspect you might have it, speak with your doctor.

      Reason for a Late Period #7: Illness

      Are you getting over a recent illness? Illness can cause to a disruption in your menstrual cycle. This is temporarily,and hopefully your cycles will be regular again soon.

      Reason for a Late Period #8: Menopause or Early-Menopause

      Another reason for a late or irregular period is if you are in the beginning stages of menopause. Signs of early menopause (also known as per-menopause) includes late periods and irregular cycles, heavy and light
      periods.

      Reason for a Late Period #9: Breastfeeding

      It is very common for breastfeeding mothers to have late periods and irregular cycles. Some women will not menstruate at all while breastfeeding. Cycles will usually be normal once you stop nursing your baby.

      Reason for a Late Period #10: Schedule Changes

      A tenth reason for a late period is a significant change in your schedule. If you have been staying up later at night, and/or not getting enough sleep, your menstrual cycle may be delayed or affected.

      If you think that you might be pregnant but have a negative pregnancy test, there is still a chance that you could be pregnant. Pregnancy tests are not 100% accurate, and some women will not get a positive pregnancy test on an at-home test. A blood test (done at your doctor's or a clinic's office) is more more accurate and can confirm if you are pregnant.

  43. QUESTION:
    What would cause my period to be 9 days early?
    what causes an early period? i am currently on the pill..im not always the best at remembering to take them..I have very regular periods..same time every month never been late or more than about a day early..i am sexually active..thats why im on BC..But this month i am 9 days early..any advice would be greatly appreciated?

    • ANSWER:
      I found this at http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/why-my-period-early.html

      "Age, weight, thyroid status, prolactin level, insulin resistance, stress, hypothalamic dysfunction, exercise and dietary changes all can result in disturbances in the normal menstrual cycle. Also, as a woman approaches menopause, the menstrual cycle length often shortens.
      In a normal 28-day cycle, counting the first day of menstrual bleeding as day 1, ovulation typically occurs around day 14. I would recommend you monitor your basal body temperatures and cervical mucus pattern and/or test your urinary LH levels with a home kit to predict the time of ovulation. (A good guidebook for this is Toni Weschler's Take Charge of Your Fertility.) Once you know when you are ovulating, you can determine whether the shortening is occurring in the follicular phase (the first half of your cycle, from the start of your period to ovulation) or in the luteal phase (the second half, from ovulation to the start of the next period).

      A shortened luteal phase is probably not a cause for infertility. However, a shortening of the time interval before ovulation is often seen in women withdiminished ovarian reserve. If ovarian reserve testing is normal, then ovulation induction (regulating ovulation through the use of medication) can often correct the problem and enhance fertility. Without a thorough medical history, physical examination, ultrasound examination and laboratory testing to determine the cause of your cycle changes, I cannot predict whether your situation will reverse itself or become progressively more abnormal."

      Hope it answers your question...

  44. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to get pregnant without any sign of pregnancy?
    I have normal period and last month I missed my period 56 days and start again my period.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it is. But you didn't mention your age. (around 40-ish maybe?) You could be premenopausal. Usually when entering menopause one doesn't abruptly stop having menstrual periods--it's on again/off again. It may take a year or more before the periods finally stop.

      However, if you believe you may be pregnant, take a home pregnancy test to rule that out. If negative, I suggest seeing an OB/GYN for a to check out the irregularity of your cycle.

  45. QUESTION:
    How to you get bladder infections?
    I need to pee ALOT and it hurts abit when i do, i think ive got a bladder infection ive had one before, but i don't know how i got it? could it be anything else? More symptoms? Remedies?

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bladder-infection/AN01683

      Information about bladder infections in Women - hope this helps!

      There can be several causes of chronic bladder infections, such as:

      ■Kidney or bladder stones
      ■Bacteria entering the urethra during sexual intercourse
      ■Altered estrogen levels during menopause
      ■Abnormal urinary tract shape or function
      ■Genetic predisposition
      In general, women who have two or more culture-documented bladder infections in a six-month period should be evaluated by a urologist to determine the underlying cause. The evaluation may include:

      ■Urine culture of a sample obtained with a catheter
      ■Cystoscopy — looking into the bladder with a lighted scope
      ■Computerized tomography (CT) scan
      Treatment is directed at the underlying cause, when possible. If no source of infection is found, lifestyle modifications combined with vaginal estrogen replacement is all you may need. Lifestyle modifications that may reduce your risk of bladder infection include:

      ■Drinking plenty of liquids, especially water
      ■Drinking cranberry juice, though studies with promising results had limitations
      ■Urinating frequently
      ■Wiping from front to back after a bowel movement
      ■Taking showers rather than tub baths
      ■Gently washing the skin around your vagina and anus daily using a mild soap and plenty of water
      ■Using forms of birth control other than a diaphragm and spermicides
      ■Emptying your bladder as soon as possible after intercourse
      ■Avoiding deodorant sprays or scented feminine products in the genital area
      Otherwise, long-term, low-dose, preventive antibiotics is the only treatment option. In such cases, you may need to take antibiotics for as long as six months to two years.

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/urinary-tract-infection/DS00286/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs

      Treatments and drugs
      By Mayo Clinic staff

      If your symptoms are typical of a urinary tract infection and you're generally in good health, antibiotics are the first line of treatment. Which drugs are prescribed and for how long depends on your health condition and the type of bacteria found in your urine.

      Simple infection
      Drugs commonly recommended for simple urinary tract infections include:

      ■Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox)
      ■Nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrodantin)
      ■Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
      ■Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
      ■Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim)
      Usually, symptoms clear up within a few days of treatment. But you may need to continue antibiotics for a week or more. Take the entire course of antibiotics recommended by your doctor to ensure that the infection is completely eradicated.

      For an uncomplicated urinary tract infection that occurs when you're otherwise healthy, your doctor may recommend a shorter course of treatment, such as taking an antibiotic for three days. But whether this short course of treatment is adequate to treat your infection depends on your particular symptoms and medical history.

      Your doctor may also prescribe a pain medication (analgesic) that numbs your bladder and urethra to relieve burning while urinating. One common side effect of urinary tract analgesics is discolored urine — bright blue or orange.

      Recurrent infection
      If you have recurrent urinary tract infections, your doctor may recommend a longer course of antibiotic treatment or a self-treatment program with short courses of antibiotics at the outset of your urinary symptoms. Home urine tests, in which you dip a test stick into a urine sample, are now available that are highly sensitive and may be helpful if you experience recurring infections.

      For infections related to sexual activity, your doctor may recommend taking a single dose of antibiotic after sexual intercourse.

      If you're postmenopausal, your doctor may recommend vaginal estrogen therapy to minimize your chance of recurrent urinary tract infections.

      Severe infection
      For severe urinary tract infections, hospitalization and treatment with intravenous antibiotics may be necessary.

  46. QUESTION:
    Can anybody help?, i am 39 and Dr says I am going through menopause?
    After a misscarriage last year which I hemoraged, my doctor did test and informed me i am going through menopause, myself and my husband are desperate for another chance, but Dr says there is nothing that can be done, unless I go private?, has anyone else been through this and any advice? I have tried home ovulating kits but after doing them 1st thing in the morning read that it shouldnt be done then, so i don't think i am ovulating. Please someone help.

    • ANSWER:
      Ok I understang that he can't help you he ask you to go private than why don't he refer you to a specialist
      some doc are so incompetant maybe you are not even going throw menapause but it is an easy answer to give to you
      Go see an specialist
      you can also get some fertility blend (GNC) to start with that might help you to ovulate
      the doc could have try to give you clomid as well
      Please see a specialist
      Good luck

  47. QUESTION:
    I am 46 and suffer from constant nasal congestion, which could be pre-menapausal related. Please help?
    I had my hormones and thyroid checked which are OK.
    I use Nasonex, a steroid nasal spray and a saline spray which sort of helps. I have a very dry and congested nose which up until about a yr ago was OK. I also had an allergy test which was OK. I also get itchy skin, like a heat rash.

    Does anyone else have the same problem and if so, what do you do?
    I felt like this when I was pregnant,
    I don't have polyps.
    I saw an ENT dr and he said I don't have an infection or need surgery

    • ANSWER:
      Nasal congestion isn't one of the symptoms of menopause.
      It sounds like allergies to me. It could be your environment @ home, outdoors (depending where you live) your diet. I would stop using nasal sprays they help for a while but can make the problem worse.
      How is your diet? Do you eat a lot of milk products, they can make a lot of phlegm & can cause congestion.
      You could be allergic to dust-mites, they live in your bedding & live off of your dead tissue.
      Keep a food diary & see when your congestion happens &
      when not. You need to investigate what's going on. Also get a 2nd opinion.

  48. QUESTION:
    How to you get bladder infections?
    I need to pee ALOT and it hurts abit when i do, i think ive got a bladder infection ive had one before, but i don't know how i got it? could it be anything else? More symptoms? Remedies?

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bladder-infection/AN01683

      Information about bladder infections in Women - hope this helps!

      There can be several causes of chronic bladder infections, such as:

      ■Kidney or bladder stones
      ■Bacteria entering the urethra during sexual intercourse
      ■Altered estrogen levels during menopause
      ■Abnormal urinary tract shape or function
      ■Genetic predisposition
      In general, women who have two or more culture-documented bladder infections in a six-month period should be evaluated by a urologist to determine the underlying cause. The evaluation may include:

      ■Urine culture of a sample obtained with a catheter
      ■Cystoscopy — looking into the bladder with a lighted scope
      ■Computerized tomography (CT) scan
      Treatment is directed at the underlying cause, when possible. If no source of infection is found, lifestyle modifications combined with vaginal estrogen replacement is all you may need. Lifestyle modifications that may reduce your risk of bladder infection include:

      ■Drinking plenty of liquids, especially water
      ■Drinking cranberry juice, though studies with promising results had limitations
      ■Urinating frequently
      ■Wiping from front to back after a bowel movement
      ■Taking showers rather than tub baths
      ■Gently washing the skin around your vagina and anus daily using a mild soap and plenty of water
      ■Using forms of birth control other than a diaphragm and spermicides
      ■Emptying your bladder as soon as possible after intercourse
      ■Avoiding deodorant sprays or scented feminine products in the genital area
      Otherwise, long-term, low-dose, preventive antibiotics is the only treatment option. In such cases, you may need to take antibiotics for as long as six months to two years.

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/urinary-tract-infection/DS00286/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs

      Treatments and drugs
      By Mayo Clinic staff

      If your symptoms are typical of a urinary tract infection and you're generally in good health, antibiotics are the first line of treatment. Which drugs are prescribed and for how long depends on your health condition and the type of bacteria found in your urine.

      Simple infection
      Drugs commonly recommended for simple urinary tract infections include:

      ■Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox)
      ■Nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrodantin)
      ■Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
      ■Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
      ■Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim)
      Usually, symptoms clear up within a few days of treatment. But you may need to continue antibiotics for a week or more. Take the entire course of antibiotics recommended by your doctor to ensure that the infection is completely eradicated.

      For an uncomplicated urinary tract infection that occurs when you're otherwise healthy, your doctor may recommend a shorter course of treatment, such as taking an antibiotic for three days. But whether this short course of treatment is adequate to treat your infection depends on your particular symptoms and medical history.

      Your doctor may also prescribe a pain medication (analgesic) that numbs your bladder and urethra to relieve burning while urinating. One common side effect of urinary tract analgesics is discolored urine — bright blue or orange.

      Recurrent infection
      If you have recurrent urinary tract infections, your doctor may recommend a longer course of antibiotic treatment or a self-treatment program with short courses of antibiotics at the outset of your urinary symptoms. Home urine tests, in which you dip a test stick into a urine sample, are now available that are highly sensitive and may be helpful if you experience recurring infections.

      For infections related to sexual activity, your doctor may recommend taking a single dose of antibiotic after sexual intercourse.

      If you're postmenopausal, your doctor may recommend vaginal estrogen therapy to minimize your chance of recurrent urinary tract infections.

      Severe infection
      For severe urinary tract infections, hospitalization and treatment with intravenous antibiotics may be necessary.

  49. QUESTION:
    II'm 11 days late for my period, but the blood test from the doctor& a home pregnancy test were both negative?
    I had tubal litigation 3 years ago. I don't know what is going on.

    • ANSWER:
      i've skipped periods before. my doc said don't worry about it until i've missed the third in a row. i'm not sure your age so i'll leave menopause possiblity out....

  50. QUESTION:
    What is a mammogram and when do you need to get checked? Is there a certain again?
    I am 24, should I get a check up?
    And What type of doctor does this?

    • ANSWER:
      A mammogram is a test to check for abnormalities or cancer in the breasts. It is performed at a radiology lab (referal by your dr.) & the test consists of using a machine that quite literally squishes & x-rays the breasts. It's suggested that every woman get one starting at 40 years old or slightly earlier if there is a high occurance of cancer in the family or if menopause has begun early. (It did for my mom, she was in her late 30s.)

      At 24 you do not need to get a mammogram unless it's absolutely necessary in which case they'd have to do it via ultrasound or similar (reason explained below). I'm the same age & have already checked into it cause there is a HIGH occurance of all female cancers in my family....especially breast cancer. I've had a cervical cancer scare myself (when I was 22) & quite a few female relatives who have had breast cancer have had it bad enough that they needed to get mastectomies done =o( I asked my doctor about it due to my family history & she said that at this point it's unnecesary because at this age the breast tissue is entirely too dense for them to be able to get checked. If any of my relatives had gotten their cancer pre-menopausal (which they did NOT - it was all post) then I could've gone to a geneticist & gotten a test to see if I was genetically predispositioned for it. For now just go to your ob/gyn regularly (at least once a year), make sure to get a PAP (this is another crucially needed test for women) & even though they do a breast examination by hand there, it is highly suggested to also perform one on yourself at home at least once monthly. If you do not know how, the doctor can show you & give you brochures that include pictures on showing you how. It only takes a few minutes to do it & can easily be done while in the shower for example.

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home menopause test