Ovulation During Menopause

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    During menopause, is it normal to feel weepy and emotional all the time?
    I don't go a day without either crying or feeling like crying most of the day. I just can't manage to feel happy anymore and I wondered if this is normal for a woman going through menopause.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not old enough yet to go through menopause, so I don't have any first hand experiences to help you with. And for that I'm truly sorry. However, I did utilize google and found this website:

      http://www.epigee.org/menopause/mood_swings.html

      And according to that, mood swings happen to almost every menopausal woman.

      That website states:

      Mood swings during menopause are still a cause for great debate. No one is entirely sure what the exact cause of mood swings is but it is generally accepted that fluctuating hormones are responsible for these emotional whirlwinds. During menopause, your body no longer produces any eggs for fertilization. As a result, your body stops producing hormones that trigger ovulation and menstruation. Gradually, your periods and ovulation will become more erratic, sending your hormones into an up-and-down spiral!

      I also found this website:

      http://www.menopauseatoz.com/menopause-mood-swing-rollercoaster.shtml

      Which says:

      Women that experience menopause and mood swings should take the time to develop a strategy involving attitude, support, loved ones, workers, daily planning, and diet, all tools that will help her manage the mood swings being experienced. This is not the time for her to be so hard on herself! She needs to allow failure in life, which does not make her a bad person. Symptoms of menopause and mood swings can be significantly reduced by following a course of action such as a weekly exercise regimen, perhaps meditation, and deep breathing and yoga, which have been proven to relieve the effects of mood swings.

      So there is hope out there. I know it must be a very difficult time for you right now, to deal with your rapidly shifting emotions, but there are some things you and your family can do to help!

  2. QUESTION:
    When should I start testing for ovulation and when should I have sex?
    My period started today Sept. 6th, and I wanted to know when is the earliest to start testing for ovulation. I also wanted to know when I should start having sex and how long can sperm live after intercourse? It would be a great help to me :-)

    • ANSWER:
      Ovulation is a phase of the female menstrual cycle that involves the release of an egg (ovum) from one of the ovaries. New life begins if the ovum meets with a sperm during its journey down the fallopian tube. Ovulation depends on a complex interplay of glands and their hormones, and generally occurs about two weeks before the onset of the menstrual period. Typical ovulation symptoms and signs include changes in cervical mucus and a small rise in basal temperature. For most women, ovulation occurs about once every month until menopause, apart from episodes of pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, some women experience irregular ovulation or no ovulation at all.

      Signs of ovulation
      The female body shows several signs of ovulation. You may experience some or all of these signs, including:

      Regular menstrual cycles - menstrual periods that arrive every 24-35 days are more likely to be ovulatory than periods that occur more or less often.
      Mucus changes - about two weeks before menstruation, an ovulating woman may notice slick and slippery mucus.
      Abdominal pain - some women experience pain during ovulation. The pain may be general or localised to one side of the abdomen.
      Premenstrual symptoms - ovulation may accompany premenstrual symptoms such as breast enlargement and tenderness, abdominal bloating and moodiness.
      Temperature rise - women who use a natural family planning method of contraception will notice a small rise in their basal temperature after ovulation has occurred. The temperature rise is about half a degree Celsius. This temperature rise does not predict ovulation - it suggests that ovulation has already taken place.
      Structures involved in ovulation
      Ovulation depends on the activity of various structures and their hormones, including:
      Hypothalamus - located within the brain. The hypothalamus uses hormones to communicate with the pituitary.
      Pituitary - known as the ‘master gland’ of the hormone (endocrine) system. It is located within the brain, at the base of the skull, and is connected to the hypothalamus by a thin stalk. It uses chemicals to prompt the ovaries to produce their hormones.
      Ovaries - the two almond-shaped glands located within a woman’s pelvis that contain the ova. The ovaries make the two female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone.
      Menstrual cycle explained
      Ovulation is part of the menstrual cycle. This cycle is caused by the complex and interrelated activity of various hormones. The cycle includes:
      Menstruation - the shedding of the uterine lining.
      Follicular phase - the hypothalamus triggers the pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which prompts the ovaries to produce up to 20 follicles. Each follicle contains an immature ovum. Usually, only one follicle survives to maturity. Assuming the menstrual cycle is around 28 days long, a single ovum matures at about day 10. This event also prompts the thickening of the uterine lining (endometrium) in preparation for a fertilised ovum.
      Ovulation - the maturing follicle prompts the release of higher amounts of oestrogen. The hypothalamus responds by secreting a chemical known as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which makes the pituitary produce luteinising hormone (LH) and FSH. High levels of LH trigger ovulation within about two days. The mature follicle releases the ovum into the peritoneal cavity; it is then drawn into the open end of the fallopian tube. Small hair-like structures within the fallopian tube wave or ‘massage’ the ovum towards the uterus. Unless the ovum encounters a sperm within 24 hours, it will die.
      Luteal phase - the follicle becomes the corpus luteum, a structure that makes the hormone progesterone. Unless a fertilised ovum implants into the uterine lining, the corpus luteum dies. Without its contribution of progesterone, the uterus can’t maintain the thickened uterine lining, and menstruation occurs.
      Ovulation predictor kits
      There are many different kinds of ovulation predictor kits on the market. Most work by measuring the level of luteinising hormone (LH) in the woman’s urine. LH levels rise about 24 to 36 hours before ovulation takes place. You need to estimate your approximate time of ovulation if you’re to use these kits effectively. All kits come with detailed instructions and a number of testers, but one way to calculate your estimated time of ovulation includes:
      Work out the length of your average menstrual cycle. Day one is the first day of the menstrual period and the last day is the day before the next period begins. Let’s say the menstrual cycle is 28 days long.
      Subtract 17 days. In our example, 28 days minus 17 days equals day 11.
      Use the ovulation predictor kit on day 11. Continue testing daily until the test comes back positive. A positive result means you are going to ovulate within the next 24 to 36 hours.
      Having sex around the time of ovulation means that the sperm and ovum have a good chance of meeting in the fallopian tube.
      Medical tests
      Medical tests can check whether or not ovulation took place. These tests can include:
      Blood test - to check for the presence of progesterone. A level greater than 20nmol/L indicates that ovulation took place. This test must be taken about three to 10 days before the first day of the next expected period.
      Pregnancy ultrasound - the presence of a foetus is the only 100 per cent proof that ovulation took place. Medical tests such as ovulation predictor kits and blood tests can only ascertain that ovulation probably - not definitely - occurred.
      Problems with ovulation
      Common causes of ovulatory problems include:
      Hypothalamus - events that can alter the functioning of the hypothalamus include polycystic ovary syndrome, overexercising, poor nutrition and chronic stress.
      Pituitary - events that can prevent the pituitary gland from producing enough hormones include benign pituitary tumours or direct injury to the pituitary itself.
      Ovary - events that can prevent the ovaries from releasing ova include early menopause (also known as ovarian failure), or damage to or removal of the ovaries.
      Increase your chances of ovulation
      Ways to increase your chances of ovulation include:
      Women who are seriously obese or underweight may have problems with ovulation. Try to keep your weight around the average for your height and build.
      Excessive exercise can prevent ovulation. Ease back on your physical activity levels - this may require expert help if your desire to exercise is actually a form of bulimia.
      Repeated crash dieting, fasting, skipping meals and other disordered eating habits can hamper your body’s ability to regularly ovulate. Make sure to eat properly and regularly. Once again, you may need expert help if these habits are associated with an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa.
      Chronic emotional stress can play havoc with your menstrual cycle. Try to reduce the amount of stress in your life, and learn ways to better cope with stress. For example, relaxation training may be helpful.
      Reproductive technology - ovulation induction
      Some women who aren’t ovulating regularly can be helped by reproductive technologies including tablets and injections to trigger higher production of ovulatory hormones. The dosage needs to be carefully monitored, because ovulation induction can trigger the maturation of a number of ova, which could lead to multiple pregnancies

  3. QUESTION:
    What are the symptoms of the menopause?
    My mother is beginning to enter the menopause and I was wondering what health problems it can cause. Anything like depression? Anxiety? Heart problems?

    • ANSWER:
      Signs and symptoms
      Every woman experiences menopause differently. Even the age at which menopause begins may be unique to you. Some women reach menopause in their 30s or 40s, and some not until their 60s, but menopause most often occurs between the ages of 45 and 55.

      Your signs and symptoms also are likely to be very individual. You may breeze through menopause with few signs and symptoms. Or you may experience a number of physical and emotional changes, including:

      Irregular periods. Your menstrual periods may stop suddenly, or gradually get lighter or heavier and then stop. The unpredictability of your periods may be your first clue that menopause is approaching.
      Decreased fertility. When ovulation begins to fluctuate, you're less likely to become pregnant. Until you haven't had a period for a year, however, pregnancy is still possible.
      Vaginal and urinary changes. As your estrogen level declines, the tissues lining your vagina and urethra — the opening to your bladder — become drier, thinner and less elastic. With decreased lubrication you may experience burning or itching, along with increased risk of infections of your urinary tract or vagina. These changes may make sexual intercourse uncomfortable or even painful. You may feel the need to urinate more frequently or more urgently, and you may experience urinary incontinence.
      Hot flashes. As your estrogen level drops, your blood vessels may expand rapidly, causing your skin temperature to rise. This can lead to a feeling of warmth that moves upward from your chest to your shoulders, neck and head. You may sweat, and as the sweat evaporates from your skin, you may feel chilled, weak and slightly faint. Your face might look flushed, and red blotches may appear on your chest, neck and arms. Most hot flashes last from 30 seconds to several minutes, although they can last much longer. The frequency, as well as the duration, of hot flashes varies from person to person. You may have them once every hour or only occasionally. They can occur any time during the day or night. They may be a part of your life for a year or more, or you may never have them.
      Sleep disturbances and night sweats. Night sweats are often a consequence of hot flashes. You may awaken from a sound sleep with soaking night sweats followed by chills. You may have difficulty falling back to sleep or achieving a deep, restful sleep. Lack of sleep may affect your mood and overall health.
      Changes in appearance. Many women gain a modest amount of weight — about 5 pounds on average — during the menopausal transition. The fat that once was concentrated in your hips and thighs may settle above your waist and in your abdomen. You may notice a loss of fullness in your breasts, thinning hair and wrinkles in your skin. If you previously experienced adult acne, it may become worse. Although your estrogen level drops, your body continues to produce small amounts of the male hormone testosterone. As a result, you may develop coarse hair on your chin, upper lip, chest and abdomen.
      Emotional and cognitive changes. You may experience irritability, fatigue, decreased memory and diminished concentration as you approach menopause. These symptoms have sometimes been attributed to hormonal fluctuations. Yet other factors are more likely to contribute to these changes, including sleep deprivation and stressful life events — such as the illness or death of a parent, grown children leaving home or returning home, and retirement.

      Complications
      Several chronic medical conditions tend to appear after menopause. By becoming aware of the following conditions, you can take steps to help reduce your risk:

      Cardiovascular disease. At the same time your estrogen levels decline, your risk of cardiovascular disease increases. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in women as well as in men. Yet you can do a great deal to reduce your risk of heart disease. These risk-reduction steps include stopping smoking, reducing high blood pressure, getting regular aerobic exercise and eating a diet low in saturated fats and plentiful in whole grains, fruits and vegetables.
      Osteoporosis. During the first few years after menopause, you may lose bone density at a rapid rate, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis causes bones to become brittle and weak, leading to an increased risk of fractures. Postmenopausal women are especially susceptible to fractures of the hip, wrist and spine. That's why it's especially important during this time to get adequate calcium — 1,500 milligrams daily — and vitamin D — 400 to 800 international units daily. It's also important to exercise regularly. Strength training and weight-bearing activities such as walking and jogging are especially beneficial in keeping your bones strong.
      Urinary incontinence. As the tissues of your vagina and urethra lose their elasticity, you may experience a frequent, sudden, strong urge to urinate (urge incontinence) or incontinence with coughing, laughing or lifting (stress incontinence).
      Weight gain. Many women gain weight during the menopausal transition. You may need to eat less — perhaps as many as 200 to 400 fewer calories a day — and exercise more, just to maintain your current weight.

  4. QUESTION:
    What are the side effects of clomid and progesterone?
    I took Clomid days 4-8 and Progesterone suppositories since 6 days post ovulation, and since about 3 DPO I have had increasing sore breasts (today is 10 DPO and they're KILLING me) and nausea all morning, getting worse each day, since 8 DPO. Did others have this as side effects from these medications or could I be pregnant? This is my second cycle on Clomid, TTC since 5/06.

    • ANSWER:
      I agree with Mrs 1101...My boobs hurt, i bloated in the stomach, and I can't take a dump for anything....LOL. I think even when you quit taking it your boobs can still hurt and you can stay constipated. I did read something interesting that some women are prescribed progesterone during menopause to dull breast tenderness...so this made me think in the past that i must be pregnant because progesterone would make the pain go away. Well, I've been on clomid since Sept...and no baby yet...so those sore boobs weren't pregnancy. :-(

  5. QUESTION:
    what is meant by menstrual cycle and menopause? and when is the egg most fertile?
    when is a woman most likely to get pregnant during her periods? and at what age does a menopause usually occur?

    • ANSWER:
      the definition of menstrual cycle is- a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation; "the average menstrual cycle is 28 days" Ovulation occurs in the middle of the cycle and is when the woman is fertile.
      the definition of menopause is- A gradual process that happens when a woman's ovaries make less estrogen and progesterone and her lifetime supply of eggs is depleted. A woman is considered to have reached menopause when she hasn't menstruated for 12 months. Natural menopause typically occurs between ages 41-59.

  6. QUESTION:
    How many days after a period does a woman ovulate?
    I have read up on ovulation days and it seems to be confusing to me based on all the counting and differnet methods that can be taken to figure out your ovulation days. I wanted to make sure that what I got out of it was correct...is it 15 days after your period ends???

    • ANSWER:
      Typical ovulation symptoms and signs include changes in cervical mucus and a small rise in basal temperature. For most women, ovulation occurs about once every month until menopause (usually 10-14 days after the first day of your period and about 14 days before your next period if you have a 28-day cycle).

      About two weeks before menstruation, an ovulating woman may notice slick and slippery mucus. This discharge can vary by being more on one day and less on another but may continue for a few days during the time you ovulate.

      You can have a look at the following website to learn more about ovulation as well as tracking ovulation and fertility:

      http://www.fertilityfriend.com/ or http://www.mymonthlycycles.com/

      Good luck :)

  7. QUESTION:
    Can a woman who has gone thru the menopause get PMT symptoms each month?
    Like swollen breasts, bad temper, craving for chocolate, the usual things but most strange is the periiod pains. Help?

    • ANSWER:
      The menopause is considered the date of the last period but really we are talking about the perimenopause which is a number of years before the menopause and a number of years after the menopause. Fertility is said to have ended up to a year after the last period so the cycle continues but the levels of hormones are less and events, like ovulation and periods, are not necessarily triggered. This period of time varies with the individual but can take about ten years.

      During this time the ovary produces less oestrogen, but other cells take over that role, so the adrenal gland can produce some oestrogen and so do fat cells. Part of the reason many women lay down fat during this time in their life.

      The implication is that there is some hormonal imbalance and she probably need to think about her health and take a good yeast free multi vitamin mineral supplement and a good oil like Efamol's Efamarine. This should help with these conditions.

  8. QUESTION:
    What exactly is discharge between periods?
    I'm only 27, so I'm a long way away, but I absolutely hate all the discharge in between periods (I have to wear pads almost everyday in between my periods...I may as well be on my period 365 days a year!).

    I know the texture and color of discharge can tell you a lot about your cycle (i.e. ovulation), but is it actually connected? What is discharge exactly and what is it's purpose? When you stop having periods after menopause, will you stop having discharge?

    • ANSWER:
      Vaginal discharge is normal and varies during your menstrual cycle. Before ovulation (the release of the egg), there is a lot of mucous produced, up to 30 times more than after ovulation. It is also more watery and elastic during that phase of your cycle. You may want to wear panty liners during that time.

      The things to be worried about include if the discharge has a yellow or green color, is clumpy like cottage cheese, or has a bad odor. If worried, see a doctor.

      Different Types of Discharge

      White: Thick, white discharge is common at the beginning and end of your cycle. Normal white discharge is not accompanied by itching. If itching is present, thick white discharge can indicate a yeast infection.

      Clear and stretchy: This is "fertile" mucous and means you are ovulating.

      Clear and watery: This occurs at different times of your cycle and can be particularly heavy after exercising.

      Yellow or Green: May indicate an infection, especially if thick or clumpy like cottage cheese or has a foul odor.

      Brown: May happen right after periods, and is just "cleaning out" your vagina. Old blood looks brown.

      Spotting Blood/Brown Discharge: This may occur when you are ovulating/mid-cycle. Sometimes early in pregnancy you may have spotting or a brownish discharge at the time your period would normally come. If you have spotting at the time of your normal period rather than you

  9. QUESTION:
    what happens if u dont ovulate and ur periods are lasting 2 days?
    i think i have a progesterone deficiency and my periods are only lasting 2 days but are regular. like clockwork. i get super bad PMS and have red up on progesterone deficiency, im worried coz i read it may mean u are not ovulating....will this stop me ever having children??? im 28 and am frightened the menopause is starting early!!
    but how do i now when/if i ovulate?

    • ANSWER:
      Well you should buy an ovulation predictor and see...and if you dont ovulate during your next cycle then go to the doctor.

  10. QUESTION:
    How many days after menstruation does ovulation occur?
    And just curious to know, is it normal to have frequent urination after menstruation, say 1 or 2 days after flow?
    I meant 1 or 2 days after your period is ending...

    • ANSWER:
      Typical ovulation symptoms and signs include changes in cervical mucus and a small rise in basal temperature. For most women, ovulation occurs about once every month until menopause (usually 10-14 days after the first day of your period and about 14 days before your next period if you have a 28-day cycle).

      About two weeks before menstruation, an ovulating woman may notice slick and slippery mucus. This discharge can vary by being more on one day and less on another but may continue for a few days during the time you ovulate.

      You can have a look at the following website to learn more about ovulation as well as tracking ovulation and fertility:

      http://www.fertilityfriend.com/ or http://www.mymonthlycycles.com/

      Good luck :)

  11. QUESTION:
    What happens during the menopause in females ? Why does it bleed.. ?

    • ANSWER:
      menopause occurs when the ovaries of a female stop producing its hormones , and thus no more ovulation no more period

      it occurs between age 45 and 55 y
      early on you may get some irregular bleeding , but only for a short period ,.
      if you are getting frequent bleeding , this is abnormal , you must see a gynecologist

  12. QUESTION:
    What's the percentage of people who go through clinical depression?
    What's the percentage of people who go through clinical depression?

    And if possible, the percentages for teenage girls.
    And I don't mean just having a tough time, I mean real depression where you get diagnosed by a doctor and get meds.

    • ANSWER:
      In the United States alone, nearly 18.8 million adults suffer from clinical depression every year. Clinical depression includes major depression, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. Therefore, in any given year, a huge number of the adult population within the age group of 15 and 45 experience clinical depression.
      Depression is more common among women than among men. Biological, life cycle, hormonal and psychosocial factors unique to women may be linked to women's higher depression rate. Researchers have shown that hormones directly affect brain chemistry that controls emotions and mood. For example, women are particularly vulnerable to depression after giving birth, when hormonal and physical changes, along with the new responsibility of caring for a newborn, can be overwhelming. Many new mothers experience a brief episode of the "baby blues," but some will develop postpartum depression, a much more serious condition that requires active treatment and emotional support for the new mother. Some studies suggest that women who experience postpartum depression often have had prior depressive episodes.

      Some women may also be susceptible to a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), sometimes called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a condition resulting from the hormonal changes that typically occur around ovulation and before menstruation begins. During the transition into menopause, some women experience an increased risk for depression. Scientists are exploring how the cyclical rise and fall of estrogen and other hormones may affect the brain chemistry that is associated with depressive illness.11

      Finally, many women face the additional stresses of work and home responsibilities, caring for children and aging parents, abuse, poverty, and relationship strains. It remains unclear why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression, while others with similar challenges do not.

      Pls links the following web sites might be helpful to you

  13. QUESTION:
    What does it mean when someone havea retroverted uterus?
    What are the side effects of having a retroverted uterus? Can I still get pregnant?

    • ANSWER:
      From http://www.womens-health.co.uk/retrover.asp

      A retroverted uterus is the name given to a uterus that is tilted backwards inside of the pelvis. Normally, women are born with a uterus that is located in a straight up and down position inside of the pelvis, or with a uterus that tips slightly forwards, towards the stomach. However, some women have a uterus that tilts backwards, pointing towards the spine. Commonly referred to as a tipped uterus, this condition affects more than 20% of women worldwide. Generally associated with no health complications, a retroverted uterus can occasionally cause painful symptoms or signal an underlying health disorder.

      What Causes a Retroverted Uterus?

      In the vast majority of women with retroverted uteruses, causes are completely genetic. Many women are simply born with a uterus that is tipped in this position, and this is entirely normal. However, certain factors can cause a uterus that is in a normal placement to become retroverted. These causes include:

      Pregnancy: During pregnancy, the uterus becomes enlarged and the ligaments that hold the uterus in place become weakened. As a result, many women find that their uterus becomes retroverted after they have delivered their babies.
      Menopause: During menopause, estrogen levels drop rapidly in women. As with pregnancy, this can cause the ligaments that hold the uterus in place to weaken, allowing it to slip into a retroverted position.
      Reproductive Health Problems: Certain reproductive health issues, including pelvic inflammatory disease and endometriosis, can cause the uterus to tilt backwards. This is because these illnesses can lead to scar tissue formation on the inside of the abdomen, forcing the uterus out of position.

      What are the Symptoms of a Retroverted Uterus?

      Generally, the majority of women suffering from a retroverted uterus experience no symptoms. However, if symptoms do present, the two most commonly-occurring symptoms include:

      pain during sexual intercourse, particularly vaginal intercourse (dyspareunia)
      pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

      This pain and discomfort is the result of pressure that the retroverted uterus places on the rectum and the ligaments around the tailbone.

      Rare symptoms associated with a retroverted uterus include:

      lower back pain
      increased number of urinary tract infections
      incontinence
      pain while using tampons
      fertility difficulties

      Diagnosing a Retroverted Uterus

      If you are experiencing symptoms of a retroverted uterus, you may want to make an appointment with your health care provider for an examination. By performing a few simple tests, your health care provider can easily diagnose the condition. Diagnosis usually consists of:

      a pelvic exam
      an abdominal ultrasound

      Occasionally, it is difficult to differentiate a retroverted uterus from a pelvic tumor. In this case, your health care provider may have to perform a rectovaginal exam.

      Are There Any Health Complications Associated with a Retroverted Uterus?

      Few women with retroverted uteruses experience health complications as a result of their condition. However, sometimes a retroverted uterus can be a warning sign of another underlying reproductive issue, including pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis. Be sure to contact your health care provider if you are experiencing:

      severe abdominal or pelvic pain
      irregular menstrual periods
      irregular ovulation or infertility

      If left untreated, these conditions can have dangerous effects on your reproductive organs and overall health.

      Will A Retroverted Uterus Affect Fertility?

      Many women who have a retroverted uterus worry that it will affect their future fertility. However, this condition does not appear to affect conception in any way, and most women with retroverted uteruses will go on to experience healthy pregnancies. If you are experiencing difficulties getting pregnant, it could be a sign of an underlying reproductive problem. Be sure to contact your health care provider for assistance.

      Treatment for A Retroverted Uterus

      If your retroverted uterus is causing you a lot of pain or discomfort, you may want to consider treatment for the condition. Treatment options include:

      Exercises: Women can perform knee-to-chest exercise in order to encourage the uterus to slip back into its proper place. Unfortunately, this tends to be a temporary solution for the problem.
      Pessaries: A pessary is a plastic device that is worn inside of the vagina. It helps to support the uterus in the proper position. However, these devices can only be worn in the short term because of the risk for developing a vaginal infection.
      Surgery: Surgery for a retroverted uterus is available. Known as the UPLIFT procedure, this procedure works to reposition the uterus by cutting and shortening the ligaments that support it. UPLIFT is a laparoscopic surgery that is performed with the aid of a small camera.

  14. QUESTION:
    How could you tell that you were going through perimenopause or premenopause?
    At what age did it start for you?
    Did your periods get heavier and or you missed or were late for them?
    Did you feel like you were losing it sometimes?

    • ANSWER:
      Many women begin to experience changes in their menstrual periods beginning in the late 30s to early 40s. This is the start of perimenopause, the variable amount of time before menopause, the complete loss of ovarian hormone function. During perimenopause, ovulation may become sporadic as hormone levels fluctuate. Some women may begin to skip periods or have heavier flow. More PMS-type symptoms, especially mood swings, may occur.

      Read more of Dr. Kelly Shanahan's comments on Perimenopause:

      http://health.ivillage.com/gynomenopause/menopausesymptoms/0,,5mt5,00.html

  15. QUESTION:
    How long before your period does ovulation occur?
    It is 14 days right?
    I am freaking out right now because I leave for a cruise in 13 days and I am and I can't use tampons so what am I going to do when I have my period all week on a cruise to the Caribbean??!!
    Also is it ALWAYS 14 days before or can a change in diet &/or exercise delay/speed it up???
    Thanks :)

    • ANSWER:
      For most women, ovulation occurs about once every month until menopause (usually 10-14 days after the first day of your period and about 14 days before your next period if you have a 28-day cycle).

      About two weeks before menstruation, an ovulating woman may notice slick and slippery mucus. This discharge can vary by being more on one day and less on another but may continue for a few days during the time you ovulate.

      You can have a look at the following website to learn more about ovulation as well as tracking ovulation and fertility:

      http://www.fertilityfriend.com/

      Good luck :)

  16. QUESTION:
    How long does an LH surge last?
    I am not taking any meds to help with getting pregnant. But my Ovulation tests have been positive for the last 4 days now. I am confused. How long are you supposed to get positive Ovulation tests. Please Help !

    • ANSWER:
      A LH surge can last from one to three days depending on your cycle and other biological factors. Some medication can interfer with the results.
      Some prescription drugs, such as menotropins may affect the test result. Certain rare medical conditions or the onset of menopause can cause elevated levels of LH. Some women do not ovulate every cycle and they will not see any increase in the level of LH hormone during these non-ovulating cycles. Women with Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) may not get reliable results from ovuluation tests. Please check with your doctor if you are unsure.

      This page has really good info on ovulation tests.
      http://www.babyhopes.com/pages.php?pageid=26

  17. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to have a baby when you have menopause?
    I have been going through menopause for about 3 yrs. I'm almost 35 and i want to know if i'm ever going to be able to have a baby

    • ANSWER:
      Having symptoms of perimenopause during your 30's is not unheard of, but is on the early end of the spectrum. On average the process of menopause typically begins in the 45-55 age range. Has your doctor ordered any blood tests to see if you are going through early menopause? There is no exact way to tell if the symptoms you are experiencing are from menopause, but there are a couple blood tests you can have done even though neither is completely accurate. A woman has reached true menopause when she has gone a full year without having a menstrual cycle. Irregular periods are very common in the perimenopausal stage. It is possible to have a baby in the perimenopause phase as ovulation does still take place. This is why some women have late-in-life babies. They think they have reached menopause because they have gone several months without a period, but if it has been less than 12 full months without a period you have to assume you may still be fertile. I am 49 years old and have been having perimenopause symptoms for about 6 years. Here is a good web site I have used to find menopause information, there is a section on pregnancy and perimenopause. http://www.4woman.gov/menopause/stages/perimenopause.cfm

  18. QUESTION:
    What are the signs and symptoms of menopause?
    I'm 49 years old. I just want to know what to expect. I'm have rather frequent periods, it seems.

    • ANSWER:
      --Signs and symptoms:

      Every woman experiences menopause differently. Even the age at which menopause begins may be unique to you. Some women reach menopause in their 30s or 40s, and some not until their 60s, but menopause most often occurs between the ages of 45 and 55.

      Your signs and symptoms also are likely to be very individual. You may breeze through menopause with few signs and symptoms. Or you may experience a number of physical and emotional changes, including:

      --Irregular periods. Your menstrual periods may stop suddenly, or gradually get lighter or heavier and then stop. The unpredictability of your periods may be your first clue that menopause is approaching.

      --Decreased fertility. When ovulation begins to fluctuate, you're less likely to become pregnant. Until you haven't had a period for a year, however, pregnancy is still possible.
      Vaginal and urinary changes. As your estrogen level declines, the tissues lining your vagina and urethra — the opening to your bladder — become drier, thinner and less elastic. With decreased lubrication you may experience burning or itching, along with increased risk of infections of your urinary tract or vagina. These changes may make sexual intercourse uncomfortable or even painful. You may feel the need to urinate more frequently or more urgently, and you may experience urinary incontinence.

      --Hot flashes. As your estrogen level drops, your blood vessels may expand rapidly, causing your skin temperature to rise. This can lead to a feeling of warmth that moves upward from your chest to your shoulders, neck and head. You may sweat, and as the sweat evaporates from your skin, you may feel chilled, weak and slightly faint. Your face might look flushed, and red blotches may appear on your chest, neck and arms. Most hot flashes last from 30 seconds to several minutes, although they can last much longer. The frequency, as well as the duration, of hot flashes varies from person to person. You may have them once every hour or only occasionally. They can occur any time during the day or night. They may be a part of your life for a year or more, or you may never have them.

      --Sleep disturbances and night sweats. Night sweats are often a consequence of hot flashes. You may awaken from a sound sleep with soaking night sweats followed by chills. You may have difficulty falling back to sleep or achieving a deep, restful sleep. Lack of sleep may affect your mood and overall health.

      --Changes in appearance. Many women gain a modest amount of weight — about 5 pounds on average — during the menopausal transition. The fat that once was concentrated in your hips and thighs may settle above your waist and in your abdomen. You may notice a loss of fullness in your breasts, thinning hair and wrinkles in your skin. If you previously experienced adult acne, it may become worse. Although your estrogen level drops, your body continues to produce small amounts of the male hormone testosterone. As a result, you may develop coarse hair on your chin, upper lip, chest and abdomen.

      --Emotional and cognitive changes. You may experience irritability, fatigue, decreased memory and diminished concentration as you approach menopause. These symptoms have sometimes been attributed to hormonal fluctuations. Yet other factors are more likely to contribute to these changes, including sleep deprivation and stressful life events — such as the illness or death of a parent, grown children leaving home or returning home, and retirement.

  19. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know how to get pregnant naturally with no fertility drugs?
    My husband and I have been trying to have a baby for four years. I have two children already, born a year and one month apart. I would like to have more children but do not really want to have to use fertility drugs. Does anyone know how to get pregnant naturally with either herbal, or natural methods? Thank you very much for any advice or answers given.

    • ANSWER:
      Vitex Chasteberry is an herbal supplement that is used to help balance your hormones, help with fertility, and relieve PMS and Menopause symptoms. There are many websites that you can google, here's one.

      http://www.susunweed.com/Article_Vitex_RedMoonHerbs.htm

      Also, Evening Primrose Oil has helped people as well.

      Another suggestion may seem odd but it did work for a friend of mine trying to conceive. She used the Instead cups that are intended for use during your period. She would place one in after sex, her and her husband had sex every other day for the week of ovulation, and she would put a cup in immediately after before she stood up. She left it there for a few hours, then would take it out. This keeps the sperm at the cervix, she conceived the first month trying this method after 6 months of trying. It may have been a coincidence but it's worth a try.

      http://thefertilityshop.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=132

  20. QUESTION:
    What happens when you take estrogen pills?
    Does it make you prettier or something. I was just watching John Tucker must die and ashanti's character said "if my mom doesn't take them she looks like Bernie mac"

    Anyway don't women are produce a lot of the estrogen hormone? Why would you take it if you're a girl?

    • ANSWER:
      All the girls or women don't produce enough of estrogen and hence the need for taking estrogen.Charro has given a typical example of the usefulness of estrogen after removal of the uterus when menopause occures due to hysterectomy.
      Estrogen is responsible for various changes and functions like :
      1.Responsible for all the puberty changes :
      a) Growth of uterus
      b) Development of breast,chiefly of ducts of mammary glands
      c) menstrual changes
      d) Appearance of secondary sexual characters.
      e)Axillary and pubic hair growth
      f)Appearance of sexual desire etc.
      2.Controls of proliferative phase of menstrual cycle
      3.Causes growth of uterus during pregnancy
      4.Growth of female configuration --- narrow shoulders,broad hips
      5.Reduction of blood cholesterol
      6.Feedback effect on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
      7.Fluid retension
      The chief estrogen sources in female are :
      a)Ovary.Graafian follicles while maturing secretes estrogen which is maximum at the time of ovulation
      b)interstitial cells also secrete estrogen
      2.Adrenal cortex
      3.Placenta actively secrets estrogen
      If sufficient estrogen is not produced,you can imagin it's result.In short,I hope this answers your question.

  21. QUESTION:
    How long is the average period?
    I had my first (exactly) two months ago. My first one started on a Sunday, and was until that Thursday. So 5 days. Will this one also be 5 days? Because I have a soccer game on Tuesday and I don't want to use tampons! So are they usually the same length?
    I forgot to mention, I started my second one early this morning.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      Here are the facts that may help any questions you have now or in the future.

      Baby girls are born with ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a uterus. The two ovaries are oval-shaped and sit on either side of the uterus (womb) in the lowest part of the abdomen called the pelvis. They contain thousands of eggs, or ova. The two fallopian tubes are long and thin. Each fallopian tube stretches from an ovary to the uterus, a pear-shaped organ that sits in the middle of the pelvis. The muscles in a female's uterus are powerful and are able to expand to allow the uterus to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor.

      As a girl matures and enters puberty, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce other hormones called estrogen and progesterone. These hormones have many effects on a girl's body, including physical maturation, growth, and emotions.

      About once a month, a tiny egg leaves one of the ovaries — a process called ovulation — and travels down one of the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. In the days before ovulation, the hormone estrogen stimulates the uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue, making the walls of the uterus thick and cushioned. This happens to prepare the uterus for pregnancy: If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the cushiony wall of the uterus, where it slowly develops into a baby.

      If the egg isn't fertilized, though — which is the case during most of a woman's monthly cycles — it doesn't attach to the wall of the uterus. When this happens, the uterus sheds the extra tissue lining. The blood, tissue, and unfertilized egg leave the uterus, going through the vagina on the way out of the body. This is a menstrual period.

      This cycle happens almost every month for several more decades (except, of course, when a female is pregnant) until a woman reaches menopause and no longer releases eggs from her ovaries

      When girls begin to go through puberty (usually starting between the ages of 8 and 13), their bodies and minds change in many ways. The hormones in their bodies stimulate new physical development, such as growth and breast development. About 2 to 2½ years after a girl's breasts begin to develop, she usually gets her first menstrual period.

      About 6 months or so before getting her first period, a girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for a girl to worry about discharge unless it has a strong odor or causes itchiness.

      The start of periods is known as menarche. Menarche doesn't happen until all the parts of a girl's reproductive system have matured and are working together.

      Just as some girls begin puberty earlier or later than others, the same applies to periods. Some girls may start menstruating as early as age 10, but others may not get their first period until they are 15 years old.

      The amount of time between a girl's periods is called her menstrual cycle (the cycle is counted from the start of one period to the start of the next). Some girls will find that their menstrual cycle lasts 28 days, whereas others might have a 24-day cycle, a 30-day cycle, or even longer. Following menarche, menstrual cycles last 21-45 days. After a couple of years, cycles shorten to an adult length of 21-34 days.

      Irregular periods are common in girls who are just beginning to menstruate. It may take the body a while to sort out all the changes going on, so a girl may have a 28-day cycle for 2 months, then miss a month, for example. Usually, after a year or two, the menstrual cycle will become more regular. Some women continue to have irregular periods into adulthood, though.

      As a girl gets older and her periods settle down — or she gets more used to her own unique cycle — she will probably find that she can predict when her period will come. In the meantime, it's a good idea to keep track of your menstrual cycle with a calendar.

      The amount of time that a girl has her period also can vary. Some girls have periods that last just 2 or 3 days. Other girls may have periods that last 7 days. The menstrual flow — meaning how much blood comes out of the vagina — can vary widely from girl to girl, too.

      Some girls may be concerned that they're losing too much blood. It can be a shock to see all that blood, but it's unlikely that a girl will lose too much, unless she has a medical condition like von Willebrand disease. Though it may look like a lot, the average amount of blood is only about 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) for an entire period. Most teens will change pads 3 to 6 times a day, with more frequent changes when their period is heaviest, usually at the start of the period.

      I hope this information helps to answer a few of your questions.

      Mama Bear
      Source(s):
      http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health…

  22. QUESTION:
    My mother gave birth to me when she was 51 years old. What is the likelihood that it's true?
    I saw in my birth certificate that she gave birth to me when she was 51. First, I'd like to ask if that's even possible. Second, I'm having doubts whether or not I'm adopted. Lastly, She let me saw her cesarean section and stretch marks but I still find it hard or I'm still having doubts.

    What do you think? Am I biological or just adopted? I grew up without a father that adds to my suspicion.
    I'm 17 yrs old.

    • ANSWER:
      Menpause babies do happen. Sometimes they come as quite a surprise. A couple stops using contraceptives because they mistakenly believe it isn't possible. During perimenopause, which happens at different times for different women, ovulation becomes irregular, but it still happens occasionally. A woman in perimenopause sometimes mistakenly believes she has reached menopause when she hasn't. My MIL was still in perimenopause at 60. See the link.

  23. QUESTION:
    What do you know about the Billings method?
    Do you have any information to share about the Billings method? What is its degree of accuracy in case of birth control? Is it safe to rely on it solely? How good is it as a measure for the well-being of the female reproductive system? Please share any scientific and correct information you know. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      The Billings Method or the BOM is the most modern natural way to achieve or to avoid becoming pregnant.

      It can be used by a woman in all stages of her reproductive life: regular, irregular cycling, breastfeeding, approaching menopause, recovering from emotional and physical stress or coming off contraceptive medication.

      Whether she is poor, illiterate or blind she learns to recognise the fertile phase in her menstrual cycle when conception may occur so that she knows ahead of time when intimate sexual contact with her husband may or may not lead to pregnancy.

      Fertility is signalled by the development of a particular type of mucus from the crypts of the cervix. Sperm live in the best type of mucus but without it they die within an hour or so. The mucus symptom, telling the woman she has begun her fertile phase, develops a few days prior to ovulation. The Peak day (the last day of the lubricative sensation) occurs very close to the time of ovulation. She is possibly fertile for a further three days and menstruation follows 11 - 16 days later.

      A woman is not asked to do anything except pay attention to what she has already noticed just as she goes about her normal daily activies; keep a simple record and apply four common sense guidelines. The daily chart is very important in reminding her to pay attention to the changes in sensation at the vulva and the appearance of any discharge seen. It also gives valuable information to the couple so that they can make decisions about their joint fertility.

      Clinical trials demonstrate how effective it is when avoiding pregnancy (better than 99%) while helping those couples labelled "low fertility" or on IVF lists to conceive a long awaited baby 80% of the time (Australian trial, 2006). The Billings chart gives valuable hormonal information to doctors and is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in the treatment of infertility.

      The Method was first called the Ovulation Method because ovulation is the important event in the cycle determining its length but in 1978 the World Health Organisation added the name of the doctor/wife team who developed it 55 years ago: Dr. John Billings AM, KSCG, MD, FRACP, FRCP(Lond) R.I.P., and Dr. Evelyn Billings, AM, DSCG, MB BS, DCH(Lond) in order to distinguish it from other methods. Since then Professor Emeritus James B. Brown MSc(NZ) PhD (Edin), FRACOG (hormone expert) and Professor Emeritus Erik Odeblad MD(Gynae), PhD, world renowned expert on the cervix, have joined the scientific team and validated the four common sense guidelines which may not be moderated in any way.

      To ensure that the authentic Billings Ovulation Method is learned using the required teaching materials it is important to find an accredited instructor near you

      How you might ask?

      FERTILITY 101 Let’s briefly review some fertility facts. Men are fertile every day of the year. Women are fertile just a few days out of each cycle. By observing and recording these times of female fertility, couples who use natural family planning can decide to avoid conception or achieve conception by abstaining from intercourse or engaging in intercourse during fertile times.

      Around the time of ovulation, estrogen causes the cervix to secrete wet, slippery mucus. (I prefer the term “cervical fluid,” but I will use the term “cervical mucus” in this article since that is the language of the Billings Ovulation Method.) An ovulated egg only lives for about 12-24 hours, but sperm can live 3-5 days in cervical mucus, which nourishes it and helps it travel. The basic premise of the Billings Ovulation Method is that cervical mucus is a reliable indicator of fertility and that a woman is fertile on any day of cervical mucus, plus the first four dry days after the mucus ends.

      FERTILE / INFERTILE TIMES *The menstrual period is considered fertile since bleeding could cover up fertile mucus *Dry days, days when there is no mucus all day long, are considered infertile *Fertile days occur when there is any wetness, spotting, or mucus, even once during the day. All mucus is considered fertile, whether it’s pasty, creamy, lotiony, egg white, etc.

      RULES FOR OBSERVING AND CHARTING CERVICAL MUCUS 1. Throughout the day, notice your vaginal sensation. Does it feel wet or dry? 2. Wipe downward across the vaginal opening before and after each bathroom visit. Use a clean fingertip or t.p.
      3. Note the presence and quality of cervical mucus. Is mucus present? Make up your own descriptors for your mucus (i.e., pasty, creamy, egg white etc.) as you use the method. The wetter and stretchier your mucus, the more fertile you are. 4. Do Kegels before bed and make one last check. 5. Record your observation on a chart at the end of the day. Technically, if you’re not recording your observations, then you’re not following the method.
      TO AVOID PREGNANCY. . . *abstain during menstruation (since bleeding could obscure cervical mucus) *on dry days (no cervical mucus at any time in the

  24. QUESTION:
    What is the best non-hormonal form of birth control?
    I am tired of being on the pill. It makes my desire for sex go way down and changes my mood a bit. I want to get on a birth control that has no hormones or maybe very low hormones. Any suggestions?
    I only have sex with one partner so STD protection doesnt concern me.

    • ANSWER:
      My wife and I faced this question a number of years ago, and what we finally decided was for me to take a much more active role in understanding exactly when we could f*ck and not risk pregnancy (without using condoms). Absolutely best book I read was Toni Weschler's "Taking Charge of your fertility". We've used the methods in this book for 7 years... completely successful. And my wife has appreciated my involvement in this process (I became the record keeper for her temperature and other indicators during her menstrual cycle). Toni continues to update this book, and she has the broadest perspective on natural birth control of any author that I've read. Here is an excellent summary from Amazon...

      This comprehensive book explains in lucid, assured terms how to practice the fertility awareness method (FAM), a natural, scientifically proven but little-known form of birth control (which is not to be confused with the woefully ineffective "rhythm" method). Author Toni Weschler has been teaching fertility awareness for almost 20 years, and it's only just now gaining in popularity. As the book explains, by using simple fertility signs including peaks in morning body temperature and changes in cervical position and cervical mucus, it's possible to determine when ovulation is taking place. Fertility awareness is therefore useful for not only couples who are trying to conceive, but for those who are aiming to avoid pregnancy without the use of chemical contraceptives. It will be of special interest to those women who have suffered from infertility; many FAM practitioners have told the author that by filling in the detailed charts in the book, they've realized that they were chronically miscarrying, even when their doctors told them they weren't conceiving at all. As the book explains, by charting body temperature, it's simple to tell when pregnancy has occurred--and when there's danger of miscarriage. Taking Charge of Your Fertility also explains how to choose the sex of your baby by timing intercourse according to certain fertility signs. It also features thorough, easy-to-understand explanations of hormones, the menstrual cycle, and menopause, along with fertility tests and treatments and their long- and short-term side effects, plus a topnotch resource section. Recommended for any woman who wants to better understand her body.

  25. QUESTION:
    what do menestrual cycle mean? what is the purpose of a sanitary napkin?
    what are periods? how long do they last? How does it impact pregnancy? what do menestrual cycle mean? what is the purpose of a sanitary napkin?

    • ANSWER:
      As a girl matures and enters puberty, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce other hormones called estrogen and progesterone. These hormones have many effects on a girl's body, including physical maturation, growth, and emotions.

      About once a month, a tiny egg leaves one of the ovaries — a process called ovulation — and travels down one of the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. In the days before ovulation, the hormone estrogen stimulates the uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue, making the walls of the uterus thick and cushioned. This happens to prepare the uterus for pregnancy: If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the cushiony wall of the uterus, where it slowly develops into a baby.

      If the egg isn't fertilized, though — which is the case during most of a woman's monthly cycles — it doesn't attach to the wall of the uterus. When this happens, the uterus sheds the extra tissue lining. The blood, tissue, and unfertilized egg leave the uterus, going through the vagina on the way out of the body. This is a menstrual period.

      This cycle happens almost every month for several more decades (except, of course, when a female is pregnant) until a woman reaches menopause and no longer releases eggs from her ovaries.

      Pads are rectangles of absorbent material that attach to the insides of a girl's underwear. They're sometimes also called sanitary pads or sanitary napkins. Some pads have extra material on the sides (called "wings") that fold over the edges of your underwear to help hold the pad in place and prevent leakage.

      Some girls have periods with heavier bleeding, and others have lighter periods with less bleeding. Pads come in several different thicknesses and absorbencies for heavier or lighter menstrual periods or for day or nighttime use. That way, girls who have a lighter flow don't need to feel like they're wearing a pad that's bigger than they need — and girls with a heavy flow don't need to worry that they'll leak through their pad.

  26. QUESTION:
    why uterus cancer is so acute in bangladesh?
    Government says that in bangladesh there are many women affected in uterus cancer every year. What are the main reason behind it?

    • ANSWER:
      1 unhygienic condition
      2 more abortions
      3. unsafe sex
      4 early marriage
      5 malnutrition and many more
      Most women who develop ovarian cancer do not have an inherited gene mutation. Women with close relatives who have/had ovarian cancer, as well as breast cancer, have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer compared to other women. There are two genes - BRCA1 and BRCA2 - which significantly raise the risk. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes also raise the risk of breast cancer. Those genes are inherited. The BRCA1 gene is estimated to increase ovarian cancer risk by 35% to 70%, and the BRCA2 by 10% to 30%. People of Ashkenazi Jewish descent are at particularly high risk of carrying these types of gene mutations.

      Women with close relatives who have/had colon cancer, prostate cancer or uterine cancer are also at higher risk of ovarian cancer.

      Genetic screening can determine whether somebody carries the BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. Although a test for gene mutations known to significantly increase the risk of hereditary breast or ovarian cancer has been available for more than a decade, a study by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital found that few women with family histories of these cancers are even discussing genetic testing with their physicians or other health care providers.

      After eight years of searching, an international team of scientists found that a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on chromosome 9 that is uniquely linked to ovarian cancer. The scientists estimated that women carrying that particular version of the SNP on both copies of chromosome 9 have a 40 per cent higher lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer than women who do not carry it on either copy of chromosome 9, while women with only one copy of the variant have a 20 per cent higher lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer than women who have none.

      Age

      The majority of ovarian cancers occur in women over 65 years of age. A higher percentage of post-menopausal women develop ovarian cancer compared to pre-menopausal women.

      High number of total lifetime ovulations

      There is a link between the total number of ovulations during a woman's life and the risk of ovarian cancer. Four principal factors influence the total:
      Never having been pregnant - women who have never become pregnant have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer compared to women who have became pregnant. The more times a woman has become pregnant the lower her risk is.

      Never having taken the contraceptive pill - women who have never been on the contraceptive pill have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer compared to women who have. Taking the Pill for 15 years halves the risk of ovarian cancer, a study by the Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer found.

      Early start of menstruation (early menarche) - women who started their periods at an early age have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

      Late start of menopause - women whose menopause started at a later age than average have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

  27. QUESTION:
    How do you know when your menstrual is completely off?
    Because one time, i thought my period was going to end (since the blood was getting lighter), but the next day when I was in class, it bleed through my pants, so how do i know when it is going off for sure (to prevent this embarrassing moment again)

    • ANSWER:
      Periods or the menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman. On an average, periods occur every twenty eight days and last for about three to seven days. The menstruation cycles can range from twenty four days to thirty four days in women. So it is not possible to generalize whether periods are normal or abnormal. The best way to check whether periods are normal or not is by looking at the menstrual bleeding cycle and the volume of blood discharge of in the last few years. If the cycles have changed considerably or if they have become irregular or if the volume of blood flow has decreased or increased significantly, then periods are said to be abnormal. Here are the symptoms, causes and treatments for abnormal periods.

      Symptoms of Abnormal periods
      •Heavy bleeding which requires changing sanitary pads or tampons after every couple of hours.
      •Lesser Bleeding or spotting, which lasts for just two days or even lesser.
      •Bleeding experienced post sexual intercourse.
      •Bleeding experienced in between the menstruation cycle.
      •Periods continuing for more than a week.
      •Menstrual cycle which is very short, i.e., less than 24 days or too long, i.e. more than 34 days.
      Causes of Abnormal Periods

      Hormonal Changes
      When a woman is about to reach menopause, about one or two years prior to that, her levels of estrogen, a hormone, starts declining. This results in abnormal periods which are either very prolonged, short or irregular.

      Birth Control Pills
      Women who take birth control pills, often complain about abnormal periods. These pills are designed in such a way that they stop ovulation or bring certain changes in it, thus resulting in abnormal periods.

      Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
      A woman suffering from this condition experiences abnormal periods. Polycystic ovarian syndrome plays havoc with a woman's hormones by causing an increase in androgen, which is a male hormone, and depleting estrogen, which is the female hormone. Increased androgen causes male-like excessive hair growth in the body of the woman, while depleted estrogen makes ovulation irregular, thus causing abnormal periods.

      Endometriosis
      In this condition endometrial cells, which are shed every month during the periods, instead of growing and forming inside the uterus, grow outside it, in the fallopian tube, intestines and the pelvic cavity. These cells too, bleed and shed like the ones inside the uterus, thus causing menstrual bleeding which is more than normal.

      Pregnancy
      Post pregnancy, many women experience irregular, abnormal periods for a period of up to one year or so. This is because of a hormone known as prolactin, which produces breast milk in a woman. Estrogen, a hormone which causes periods, decreases in the body of a woman, post pregnancy so that prolactin can continue to be in production. This can put the periods on hold or lead to lesser bleeding or irregular periods ranging from forty five days to one year in women.

      Stress
      Any kind of physical or mental stress can cause changes in the ovulation process and hence, the woman undergoing stress often experiences abnormal periods.

  28. QUESTION:
    Pink and brown discharge two weeks before period ?
    I'm on bc I haven't took it a lot this past week because I'm paranoid about gaining Weight . I've had unprotected sex a lot with my hubby these two weeks. I've been under stress and tonight I saw a lot of brown pink discharge. I wiped and it was very very light pink?

    • ANSWER:
      Spotting Between Periods - Why?

      In women, normal periods lasts for about four to five days. The process stops and the body prepares itself for the next menstruation phase to begin. You might experience bleeding even after your periods have stopped. Irregular spotting can be stressful sometimes. This phenomenon is also observed during ovulation process. For details read the next points.

      Under Contraception
      If you are into contraceptive pills, you might observe some tinge of blood discharge from vagina and this process is known as 'spotting between periods on the pill'. Various hormonal birth control pills and birth control non-pill shots can also cause spotting in between periods. If you miss a pill or if the hormonal level in the particular pill is not enough to supplement, you might face spotting even after your periods are over. Certain contraceptive devices, like IUD also add to the causes of irregular spotting.

      Ovulation Process
      Spotting between period and ovulation are closely connected, as it is one of the most common reasons. When ovulation occurs, the mature ovarian follicle bursts open, to release the egg. This burst follicle causes bleeding between menstrual cycle and there's some amount of vaginal blood discharge. This type of bleeding is also accompanied by abdominal pain and cramps.

      Menopause Symptoms
      You might observe spotting, even if you are under complete menopause. This phenomenon is also known as impending menopause as, the ovarian activity and menstrual bleeding has paused, still there's blood discharge from vagina. If you observe these symptoms, do not delay to visit doctor, as sometimes it demands greater concern.

      Cancer in Reproductive System
      Irregular spotting between periods or unusual bleeding can also be indication of cancer in reproductive system. It can be vaginal or ovarian cancer, uterine or cervical cancer. Reproductive system cancers can be treated successfully, if you do not neglect your health and get yourself diagnosed as early as possible. However cancer is a rare cause for spotting between periods.

      Infection and Diseases
      Bleeding or spotting might also be a sign of sexually transmitted diseases and bacterial infection. It can also be due to ovarian cyst or uterine fibroids. In poly-cystic ovary syndrome, the ovary gets covered with multiple cysts, that ultimately leads to frequent bleeding. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infects reproductive organs. The infection causes abnormal vaginal bleeding. In any case, if you observe unusual vaginal bleeding, go for immediate medical check up.

      Treatment Measures

      The treatment shall be decided by your doctor. Your role is to take a doctor's help and follow his/her instructions strictly. Birth control and contraceptive pills should be taken as advised by doctors and do not skip the prescribed doses. Do not consume any pills that cause spotting. If you observe heavy discharge, get yourself diagnosed by doctors. Even if you are detected with any reproductive system disorder, treatments at early stage can always cure the diseases. Spotting after periods is also a healthy sign. It's also an indication of pregnancy. So get the pregnancy test done for yourself.

      Whatever the reason might be, spotting after periods involves some amount of concern for women. But that doesn't mean you should panic seeing blood after your periods are over. women's body is always a strange anatomy. Be frank and never hesitate to discuss the details with your doctor. I wish you a good health!

  29. QUESTION:
    How to check my progesterone level? How to read the results? and what role does it play in TTC period?
    Today is 15dpo.I had checked thru home PTK on 11Dpo it was negative.my Af is due 2maro. I have 30 days cycle.

    • ANSWER:
      It's in this last phase of the monthly cycle, the luteal phase as it's normally called, that progesterone levels rise considerably above that found in the first half or follicular phase. Rising from as little as less than 1ng/mL to 20ng/mL (serum levels). Saliva levels are much higher (see ZRT Labs below).

      When a test for progesterone levels is performed it is essential to realise two things...

      what unit of measurement was used... SI or conventional? The two cannot be compared unless a conversion is made
      was it a serum test or saliva test? These also cannot be compared

      Simple Progesterone Test
      using a Basal Thermometer
      One of the effects of an elevated progesterone level is an increase in body temperature - a thermal shift. Through the use of a basal thermometer women can accurately monitor their temperature which indicates a rise in progesterone (about a 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit increase) and a fall of progesterone, triggering menstruation, corresponding to a decrease in temperature.

      A basal thermometer may also be valuable in determining if you are progesterone deficient during pre-menopause years. (Post menopause women are not ovulating and menstruating and have constantly low progesterone levels so progesterone level shifts will not occur.) Temperature should rise at ovulation and be high until a day or two so before the end of the cycle and the start of menstruation. Fluctuations may occur due to a "double ovulation" (rare but possible within 3 days of initial ovulation) and due to sickness and a change in the time of the daily early morning temperature measurement. However if the your temperature never rises (indicating no ovulation) or consistently drops several days after ovulation staying low for days or even to the end of the cycle there is a very good chance that your progesterone levels are not being adequately maintained. Low progesterone levels can contribute to miscarriages and osteoporosis and numerous other estrogen dominance effects. You can verify your findings from home if desired by using saliva hormone testing.

      Hope this helps... This is something I have never done research on til now.

  30. QUESTION:
    I have very little sex drive? Could that be that I am going into early menopause?
    I am a 40 year old woman and for last ten years. I have wanted hardly nothing to do with sex.

    • ANSWER:
      Menopause is the turning point of women when they stop ovulating. It is natural problem. Usually women, who are reaching the age of around 50, pass this period. Actually it changes the life of women. They lose fertility in this time and they cannot give birth anymore.

      In this period, the monthly cycle of women which is called menstrual cycle is stopped, because production of estrogen becomes less in that time. Thus ovulation is finished. Approximately 70% of women experience this problem. So there are some problems regarding menopause. Some of troubles may be very harmful for women. There are 7 common symptoms which are treated as very dangerous.

      The first problem is putting on weight. Due to this problem, women face trouble around the waist, hips and thighs, because of hormonal changes. Change in metabolism is also responsible.

      Another problem is “Hot flashes”. It happens to most women. It is also a troublesome symptom. Women feel intense heat which comes all at once. It can hit in all types of weather. It can also hit any time day or night. The amount of pain or duration is not the same for all women. Many women take it as a big trouble because they face a lot of distressing feelings. These feelings may remain for years.

      Women face trouble while sleeping. They sweat on that time, which is pathetic. Due to this reason, women wake up early in the night, or waking up a lot at night. They may not enjoy a sound sleep. Thus trouble in sleep hampers their daily life particularly physically and emotionally. If it is regular, they suffer a lot.

      Overwhelming fatigue is a common problem. It creates a problem with feelings. For this reason, women feel as they are running a marathon or feel drained. If they remain in rest or running on empty, this feeling throws them into great trouble.

      Irregular menstrual cycle occurs due to menopause. As mentioned earlier, menopause is the stopping point of ovulating. So irregular periods, shorter, lighter or heavier periods occur. Cycle length can be random. Some cycles become shorter and some cycles become larger.

      Women face memory loss during this time. They find it difficult to concentrate on something. They also worry about this. This worry combines with natural symptom and creates insomnia.

      The last point is incredible mood swings feelings of dread, instant irritation, overwhelming sadness, apprehension etc. It may happen in the same day, same hour. This appears randomly like a roller coaster. If mood swings become uncontrollable, there may be a serious problem regarding this issue.

      These are the symptom that most of the women face. These are very unbearable problem for women. It is notable that, people who remain near to them also suffer. So everybody should help women with this period and realize their pain and sufferings. Menopause is natural event for women so steps should be taken to control symptoms. Of course women of that period have a right to enjoy their lives, so they should be taking care of themselves.

      http://menopauseandweight.com/

  31. QUESTION:
    is it possible to start ovulating before you start your period?
    my bf an i had sex an i took a ovulating test 2 days after i ended my period shouldnt i be ovulating? because it said i wasnt ovulating but shouldnt i be??

    • ANSWER:
      Typical ovulation symptoms and signs include changes in cervical mucus and a small rise in basal temperature. For most women, ovulation occurs about once every month until menopause (usually 10-14 days after the first day of your period and about 14 days before your next period if you have a 28-day cycle).

      About two weeks before menstruation, an ovulating woman may notice slick and slippery mucus. This discharge can vary by being more on one day and less on another but may continue for a few days during the time you ovulate.

      You can have a look at the following website to learn more about ovulation as well as tracking ovulation and fertility:

      http://www.fertilityfriend.com/

      Good luck :)

  32. QUESTION:
    whats the exact definition of a short menstrual cycle?
    I have a cycle that averages around 29 days give or take a day and I bleed for three days, sometimes 4. Is this considered a short menstrual cycle because I only bleed for 3 days? Or is it more like getting your period every 24 days and bleeding for a week? I hope this makes sense lol.

    • ANSWER:
      now im not a women but i learned a lot about the human body man and female so here's the info u need

      (physiology) The periodic series of changes associated with menstruation and the intermenstrual cycle; menstrual bleeding indicates onset of the cycle.

      Throughout a woman's reproductive life — from puberty to the menopause — the ovaries are programmed to produce a mature egg (ovum) approximately every 28 days and to prepare the uterus (womb) for implantation of an embryo if the egg becomes fertilized. To achieve this reproductive competence the ovaries must receive the correct hormonal signals from the brain and the pituitary gland. These signals stimulate the production of female sex hormones and the cyclical changes which occur in the ovary during each normal menstrual cycle. In turn the sex steroids released by the ovary induce changes in the lining of the womb and other parts of the female reproductive tract. The system is subtly regulated and fine-tuned by feedback effects of the ovarian steroid hormones on hormone secretions from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, so there is a complex interplay of hormones and feedback signals which ultimately controls female fertility. Collectively these events constitute the menstrual cycle.

      The first day of the menstrual cycle is defined as the first day of menstrual blood loss. This is when the uterus begins to shed its lining and bleeding occurs. At this time the secretion of hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) from the ovaries is at a minimum. This diminishes the braking effect that circulating ovarian hormones have on the secretion of the gonadotrophic hormones from the pituitary gland, namely luteinizing hormone (LH) amd follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). As a consequence these pituitary secretions increase and stimulate a new wave of activity in the ovaries.

      Early in the cycle, FSH stimulates growth of a few follicles (egg-containing ‘sacs’) in each ovary. By about day 10 the ovaries contain several follicles with a diameter of 14-21 mm. As mid cycle approaches, all but one of these degenerate, and only the ‘dominant’ follicle becomes fully mature, with a diameter of 20-25 mm. What determines which follicle becomes the dominant one, and in which ovary, remains speculative. Local hormones or other factors acting within the ovaries may play an important role. This first half of the ovarian cycle is known as the follicular phase and is characterized by increasing secretions of oestrogen from the developing follicles; this is released into the bloodstream, reaches the uterus, and causes its lining to thicken: the glands enlarge and it becomes richly supplied with blood vessels: the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.

      In most normal human menstrual cycles only one follicle reaches full maturity, to be released at ovulation, on about day 14. The occasional release of two accounts for non-identical twins, and fertility drugs can increase the number of follicles reaching maturity at mid cycle. These drugs are either pituitary gonadotrophins, or synthetic chemicals which interfere with the negative feedback loop in such a way as to promote an increase in the release of these hormones from the pituitary gland itself. In both cases the ovaries receive an increased ‘drive’ for follicular development, and thus several follicles will mature. Such drugs are used for treating certain types of infertility, and are given to women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. If the result is multiple ovulation, the chances of fertilization are increased or, in the case of IVF, more than one mature egg can be recovered for external fertilization and subsequent implantation.

      At mid cycle there is a dramatic change of events. There is a high blood concentration of oestrogen, but this ceases to have a braking (negative feedback) effect on the pituitary hormones. About 24-48 hours after the peak of oestrogen production a surge of the gonadotrophins occurs — especially of luteinizing hormone. This is one of the rare biological examples of a positive feedback action. The surge causes the mature ‘dominant’ follicle to rupture and release its egg within 9-12 hours. Indeed, one way of predicting ovulation is by the detection of the increase in luteinizing hormone in the blood, which is reflected in the urine. This is the scientific basis for the kits which are commercially available to identify the most likely time for conception.

  33. QUESTION:
    Any tips on having your first period?
    Hi i am 14 years old and just got my first period yesterday. I need tips on what i should do, and how to cope with pain. Do you know any ways that could get the pain to go away? I would ask my mom but i am scared and nervous to tell her, any tips on that? is there anything i could take for the pain? Tips in general would be nice as well.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      Here are the facts that may help any questions you have now or in the future.

      Baby girls are born with ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a uterus. The two ovaries are oval-shaped and sit on either side of the uterus (womb) in the lowest part of the abdomen called the pelvis. They contain thousands of eggs, or ova. The two fallopian tubes are long and thin. Each fallopian tube stretches from an ovary to the uterus, a pear-shaped organ that sits in the middle of the pelvis. The muscles in a female's uterus are powerful and are able to expand to allow the uterus to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor.

      As a girl matures and enters puberty, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce other hormones called estrogen and progesterone. These hormones have many effects on a girl's body, including physical maturation, growth, and emotions.

      About once a month, a tiny egg leaves one of the ovaries — a process called ovulation — and travels down one of the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. In the days before ovulation, the hormone estrogen stimulates the uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue, making the walls of the uterus thick and cushioned. This happens to prepare the uterus for pregnancy: If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the cushiony wall of the uterus, where it slowly develops into a baby.

      If the egg isn't fertilized, though — which is the case during most of a woman's monthly cycles — it doesn't attach to the wall of the uterus. When this happens, the uterus sheds the extra tissue lining. The blood, tissue, and unfertilized egg leave the uterus, going through the vagina on the way out of the body. This is a menstrual period.

      This cycle happens almost every month for several more decades (except, of course, when a female is pregnant) until a woman reaches menopause and no longer releases eggs from her ovaries

      When girls begin to go through puberty (usually starting between the ages of 8 and 13), their bodies and minds change in many ways. The hormones in their bodies stimulate new physical development, such as growth and breast development. About 2 to 2½ years after a girl's breasts begin to develop, she usually gets her first menstrual period.

      About 6 months or so before getting her first period, a girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for a girl to worry about discharge unless it has a strong odor or causes itchiness.

      The start of periods is known as menarche. Menarche doesn't happen until all the parts of a girl's reproductive system have matured and are working together.

      Just as some girls begin puberty earlier or later than others, the same applies to periods. Some girls may start menstruating as early as age 10, but others may not get their first period until they are 15 years old.

      The amount of time between a girl's periods is called her menstrual cycle (the cycle is counted from the start of one period to the start of the next). Some girls will find that their menstrual cycle lasts 28 days, whereas others might have a 24-day cycle, a 30-day cycle, or even longer. Following menarche, menstrual cycles last 21-45 days. After a couple of years, cycles shorten to an adult length of 21-34 days.

      Irregular periods are common in girls who are just beginning to menstruate. It may take the body a while to sort out all the changes going on, so a girl may have a 28-day cycle for 2 months, then miss a month, for example. Usually, after a year or two, the menstrual cycle will become more regular. Some women continue to have irregular periods into adulthood, though.

      As a girl gets older and her periods settle down — or she gets more used to her own unique cycle — she will probably find that she can predict when her period will come. In the meantime, it's a good idea to keep track of your menstrual cycle with a calendar.

      The amount of time that a girl has her period also can vary. Some girls have periods that last just 2 or 3 days. Other girls may have periods that last 7 days. The menstrual flow — meaning how much blood comes out of the vagina — can vary widely from girl to girl, too.

      Some girls may be concerned that they're losing too much blood. It can be a shock to see all that blood, but it's unlikely that a girl will lose too much, unless she has a medical condition like von Willebrand disease. Though it may look like a lot, the average amount of blood is only about 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) for an entire period. Most teens will change pads 3 to 6 times a day, with more frequent changes when their period is heaviest, usually at the start of the period.

      I hope this informations helps to answer a few of your questions.

      Mama Bear
      Source(s):
      http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health…

  34. QUESTION:
    How does menopause affects a woman's hormonal levels?

    • ANSWER:
      Many practitioners used to believe that estrogen dominance was the real cause of menopause. They believed the solution was to re balance the ratio of estrogen to progesterone through progesterone supplementation.

      Today, most practitioners believe during menopause there is a significant drop in progesterone levels. Progesterone and estrogen are two types of hormones in women that basically work against one another for balance.

      It's the ratio of estrogen to progesterone that causes estrogen dominance (hormone imbalance).

      During premenopause, estrogen levels tend to decrease slowly while progesterone levels drop rapidly. This is due to the result of fewer ovulation's, fewer burst follicles and less progesterone.

  35. QUESTION:
    What are the signs of your period?
    If yo have never had one before, what are the signs that usually it's about to happen? Or that it will happen soon?

    • ANSWER:
      All About A Girl Period
      When girls begin to go through puberty (usually starting between the ages of 8 and 13), their bodies and minds change in many ways. The hormones in their bodies stimulate new physical development, such as growth and breast development. About 2 to 2½ years after a girl's breasts begin to develop, she usually gets her first menstrual period.

      About 6 months or so before getting her first period, a girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for a girl to worry about discharge unless it has a strong odor or causes itchiness.

      The start of periods is known as menarche. Menarche doesn't happen until all the parts of a girl's reproductive system have matured and are working together.

      Baby girls are born with ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a uterus. The two ovaries are oval-shaped and sit on either side of the uterus (womb) in the lowest part of the abdomen called the pelvis. They contain thousands of eggs, or ova. The two fallopian tubes are long and thin. Each fallopian tube stretches from an ovary to the uterus, a pear-shaped organ that sits in the middle of the pelvis. The muscles in a female's uterus are powerful and are able to expand to allow the uterus to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor.

      As a girl matures and enters puberty, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce other hormones called estrogen and progesterone. These hormones have many effects on a girl's body, including physical maturation, growth, and emotions.

      About once a month, a tiny egg leaves one of the ovaries — a process called ovulation — and travels down one of the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. In the days before ovulation, the hormone estrogen stimulates the uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue, making the walls of the uterus thick and cushioned. This happens to prepare the uterus for pregnancy: If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the cushiony wall of the uterus, where it slowly develops into a baby.

      If the egg isn't fertilized, though — which is the case during most of a woman's monthly cycles — it doesn't attach to the wall of the uterus. When this happens, the uterus sheds the extra tissue lining. The blood, tissue, and unfertilized egg leave the uterus, going through the vagina on the way out of the body. This is a menstrual period. This cycle happens almost every month for several more decades (except, of course, when a female is pregnant) until a woman reaches menopause and no longer releases eggs from her ovaries.

      How Often Does a Girl Get Her Period?
      Just as some girls begin puberty earlier or later than others, the same applies to periods. Some girls may start menstruating as early as age 10, but others may not get their first period until they are 15 years old.

      The amount of time between a girl's periods is called her menstrual cycle (the cycle is counted from the start of one period to the start of the next). Some girls will find that their menstrual cycle lasts 28 days, whereas others might have a 24-day cycle, a 30-day cycle, or even longer. Following menarche, menstrual cycles last 21–45 days. After a couple of years, cycles shorten to an adult length of 21–34 days.

      Irregular periods are common in girls who are just beginning to menstruate. It may take the body a while to sort out all the changes going on, so a girl may have a 28-day cycle for 2 months, then miss a month, for example. Usually, after a year or two, the menstrual cycle will become more regular. Some women continue to have irregular periods into adulthood, though.

      As a girl gets older and her periods settle down — or she gets more used to her own unique cycle — she will probably find that she can predict when her period will come. In the meantime, it's a good idea to keep track of your menstrual cycle with a calendar.

      How Long and How Much?
      The amount of time that a girl has her period also can vary. Some girls have periods that last just 2 or 3 days. Other girls may have periods that last 7 days or longer. The menstrual flow — meaning how much blood comes out of the vagina — can vary widely from girl to girl, too.

      Some girls may be concerned that they're losing too much blood. It can be a shock to see all that blood, but it's unlikely that a girl will lose too much, unless she has a medical condition like von Willebrand disease. Though it may look like a lot, the average amount of blood is only about 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) for an entire period. Most teens will change pads 3 to 6 times a day, with more frequent changes when their period is heaviest, usually at the start of the period.

      Especially when menstrual periods are new, you may be worried about your blood flow or whether your period is normal in other ways. Talk to a doctor or nurse if:

      your period lasts longer than a week

  36. QUESTION:
    Did you start having hot flashes before you actually finished your periods?
    If so did you ever run a slight temperature? My periods have become irregular but haven't stopped. During the past week which matches my PMS time I have been having weird fevers. At first I thought I had a flu. A friend thinks it is hot flashes. I am spotting today and have all the signs of starting. Around the time the fevers started I had a pain that would probably have been ovulation.

    • ANSWER:
      You are probably in peri-menopause which means you may just be starting menopause. The change of life progresses over a period of years, so it's not uncommon to experience the symptoms even before the periods stop for good.

      However, hot flashes aren't necessarily accompanied by a fever. You could be running a low-grade infection. A typical hot flash is a sensation of intense heat from the chest area upwards to the face. This is followed by profuse sweating. When they occur at night during sleep, you could wake up with your nightclothes drenched with sweat.

      If I were you, I'd see your gyno to determine whether you are actually approaching menopause, or if there is something else going on.

  37. QUESTION:
    how long does breast tenderness last after you stop the pill?
    i only used it for one month but have been having breast tenderness and fullness for three months now. Had 2 light periods since and some irregular bleeding now.

    • ANSWER:
      Also try:breast tenderness pregnancy,causes of breast tenderness,breast tenderness menopause,
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      more....Search resultsCauses of breast pain (mastalgia) - Women to Women ...
      Learn about the causes of breast pain (mastalgia) and its relation to concerns about breast cancer from a noted authority on breast health, including natural remedies ...
      www.womentowomen.com/breasthealth/breastpain.asp - Cached
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      Breast Tenderness Information Including Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Causes, Videos, Forums, and local community support. Find answers to health issues you can ...
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      Breast Tenderness Symptom Information | 34-menopause-symptoms.com
      All about breast tenderness. Learn how to cope with breast tenderness.
      www.34-menopause-symptoms.com/breast-tenderness.htm - Cached

      Breast pain: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
      Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness. References. Valea FA, Katz VL. Breast diseases: diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant disease.
      www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003152.htm - Cached
      More results from nlm.nih.gov »
      Mastodynia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      Mastodynia, mastalgia or mammalgia are names for a medical symptom that means breast pain (from the Greek masto-, breast and algos, pain). Pain can range from minor ...
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      More results from en.wikipedia.org »
      Breast Pain (Sore Breasts, Mastalgia) Causes, Treatment, and ...
      What do I need to know about breast pain?Many women have breast tenderness and pain, also called mastalgia. It may come and go with monthly periods (cyclic ...
      women.webmd.com/tc/breast-pain-mastalgia-topic-overview - Cached

      Reasons for Breast Soreness | eHow.com
      Soreness in women's breasts is not necessarily an indication of a serious malady. In fact, many women experience breast tenderness from time to time. The type and ...
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      Breast Tenderness | Signs of Pregnancy | Pregnancy Symptoms ...
      Breast tenderness is often the first sign of pregnancy for many women. Get tips on how to alleviate this pregnancy symptom at BabyZone.
      www.babyzone.com/.../breast-tenderness-and-pregnancy_71711 - Cached

      Breast - premenstrual tenderness and swelling: MedlinePlus ...
      Premenstrual swelling and tenderness of both breasts occurs during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Considerations Symptoms of premenstrual breast ...
      www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003153.htm - Cached

      Breast tenderness | Symptom Search - Medical Information ...
      Discover 10 possible causes for breast tenderness including Breast Cancer Overview, Fibrocystic Breast Disease and Mastitis
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  38. QUESTION:
    What is the sequence of cell types in oogenesis?
    What are the ways that oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis?

    • ANSWER:
      Right after fertilization, primordial germ cells (PGCs) travel from the yolk sac to the gonads. There, they multiply through mitosis until they reach about seven million cells. Months after birth, the PGCs undergo meiosis and are now called primordial follicles. These primordial follicles consist of oogenic cells from the PGC which are enveloped by follicle cells. The oocyte is then arrested in Meiosis I, Prophase, until puberty.

      About four to ten follicles start to develop at the onset of puberty, but only one to two are actually released. Each of these oocytes continues Meiosis I (after arrest), dividing into a secondary oocyte and a polar body. It then undergoes Meiosis II and becomes arrested again in Metaphase II. It is at this point that the oocyte is released from the ovary during ovulation. The oocyte will finish the second meiotic division only after encounter with the sperm.

      Both oogenesis and spermatogenesis involve meiosis and produce four haploid cells. But there are differences:

      - In spermatogenesis, all daughter cells becomes a sperm, while in oogenesis only one daughter cell becomes the ovum, as all three polar bodies die

      - Spermatogenesis begins only at puberty, while oogenesis starts right after birth

      - Spermatogenesis produces billions at a time, while in oogenesis only one ovum matures every month

      - Spermatogenesis stops only at death, while oogenesis stops at menopause

      I hope you got your answers ^^,

  39. QUESTION:
    How would a doctor get rid of my cysts?
    I have an apt. tomorow, Ultrasound today, I think I have some cysts (side pains, light period) I had them when I was younger but they always seemed to fix themselves, so I'm not sure what the doctor will do....Anybody have any experience?

    • ANSWER:
      Typically, ovarian cysts are functional (not disease related) and disappear on their own. During the days preceding ovulation, a follicle grows. At the time of expected ovulation, the follicle fails to rupture and release an egg. Instead of being reabsorbed, the fluid within the follicle persists and forms a cyst. Functional cysts usually disappear within 60 days without treatment and are relatively common. They occur most often during childbearing years (puberty to menopause), but may occur at any time. You can read more about ovarian cysts here
      http://www.4woman.gov/faq/ovarian_cysts.htm
      If it is a functional cyst, these usually disappear within 60 days without treatment and are relatively common.

  40. QUESTION:
    Is ovarian cancer and cancerous ovarian cyst the same thing?
    If not, whats the diffrence? Which one is more deadly?

    • ANSWER:
      it is pretty much the same thing. a Cyst is a Fluid Filled sac, the fullid filled sac may contain the abdnormal cancer cells/gene mutations.
      Most ovarian cancers start from the cells that produce eggs called the germ cell tumors or in connective tissues called stromal cell tumors. And Germ cell tumors are much more common among women younger than 30!. Sometimes cancers from other parts of the body spread to the ovaries aswell. Ovarian cancer causes the affected ovary to enlarge. In teens, enlargement of an ovary is likely to be caused by a noncancerous fluid-filled sac which is a cyst. after menopause women with an enlarged ovary rises suspision for ovarian cancer
      Ovarian cancer has about 20 microscopically distinct types. They are classified into three large groups, epithelial cancers, germ cell tumors, and specialized stromal cell cancers!!!

      During each menstral cycle a germ cell will mature into an egg contained in a follicle, or cyst. While maturing the egg, the ovary produces estrogen. The follicle cyst is covered with the epithelium that once was the mesothelium. At ovulation, the follicle breaks and out come the egg. The remnant of the follicle cyst produces progesterone, and is called the corpus luteum. The epithelial covering gives rise to the epithelial ovarian cancers; the germ cells to the germ cell tumors and the steroid producing cells to the specialized stromal cell cancers. About 80% of ovarian cancers are epithelial. About 20% are of germ cell origin and what little is left are of specialized stromal cell origin.

  41. QUESTION:
    An important question about me for Catholics?
    I don't consider myself catholic or fully protestant, but I am christian.
    I was wondering about some of the catholic assumptions of Immorality.

    I realize that catholics believe that nearly any use of contraceptive is Immoral.

    However, what about my case? I have to take a birth control pill due to serious Illness. I have to stay on them for a long time - until I'd like to have kids or are in menopause.

    I understand that the pill could possibly "kill the baby", but this doesn't mean that I wouldn't like to have sex with my husband.

    So because of that, I'd like to use condoms so that I won't end up killing anything. Is this Wrong or "Immoral", and if it is, how so?

    The bible No where states that contraception is right or wrong. It's mainly the motive behind it that makes it right or wrong.

    So if I'm wrong for this, does this mean that I'm just simply Not allowed to have sex - at all?

    • ANSWER:
      1. In Catholic teaching, there is nothing wrong with taking the pill if you are using it specifically for medical therapy, not as contraception.

      2. To avoid the possibility of the pill preventing a child you conceive with your husband from implanting in your womb (thus leading to the death of your child), you can refrain from sex during ovulation. Natural Family Planning ought to allow you to track signs of ovulation, when/if it happens while you are on the pill.

      3. Condoms are always morally wrong because they are a barrier between the couple during the marital act, which is supposed to be 100% unifying, and also because you would be using them specifically as contraception.

      4. The Bible is not the only source of truth. Contraception is not specifically stated, but neither is pornography, and we know that's wrong.

      5. You should also know that a lot of doctors Rx the pill not to CURE your medical condition but to mask the symptoms so you shut up and stop complaining. Have you asked your dr. if the pill is actually curing your condition? Because it really sounds like it isn't. It sounds like your dr. expects you to be on it until you decide to have children or go through menopause. Women's health care is sorely lacking, I am afraid. What I highly recommend is that you google NAPRO Technology. This is a medical diagnostic and treatment system that might actually CURE your problem instead of masking it. Then you wouldn't have to take the pill indefinitely, and you could actually heal your body.

  42. QUESTION:
    Why am I bleeding in between my periods?
    So, I had unprotected sex then had a period shortly after. It's been two weeks since that period and I'm bleeding again. What gives?

    • ANSWER:
      Spotting Between Periods - Why?

      In women, normal periods lasts for about four to five days. The process stops and the body prepares itself for the next menstruation phase to begin. You might experience bleeding even after your periods have stopped. Irregular spotting can be stressful sometimes. This phenomenon is also observed during ovulation process. For details read the next points.

      Under Contraception
      If you are into contraceptive pills, you might observe some tinge of blood discharge from vagina and this process is known as 'spotting between periods on the pill'. Various hormonal birth control pills and birth control non-pill shots can also cause spotting in between periods. If you miss a pill or if the hormonal level in the particular pill is not enough to supplement, you might face spotting even after your periods are over. Certain contraceptive devices, like IUD also add to the causes of irregular spotting.

      Ovulation Process
      Spotting between period and ovulation are closely connected, as it is one of the most common reasons. When ovulation occurs, the mature ovarian follicle bursts open, to release the egg. This burst follicle causes bleeding between menstrual cycle and there's some amount of vaginal blood discharge. This type of bleeding is also accompanied by abdominal pain and cramps.

      Menopause Symptoms
      You might observe spotting, even if you are under complete menopause. This phenomenon is also known as impending menopause as, the ovarian activity and menstrual bleeding has paused, still there's blood discharge from vagina. If you observe these symptoms, do not delay to visit doctor, as sometimes it demands greater concern.

      Cancer in Reproductive System
      Irregular spotting between periods or unusual bleeding can also be indication of cancer in reproductive system. It can be vaginal or ovarian cancer, uterine or cervical cancer. Reproductive system cancers can be treated successfully, if you do not neglect your health and get yourself diagnosed as early as possible. However cancer is a rare cause for spotting between periods.

      Infection and Diseases
      Bleeding or spotting might also be a sign of sexually transmitted diseases and bacterial infection. It can also be due to ovarian cyst or uterine fibroids. In poly-cystic ovary syndrome, the ovary gets covered with multiple cysts, that ultimately leads to frequent bleeding. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infects reproductive organs. The infection causes abnormal vaginal bleeding. In any case, if you observe unusual vaginal bleeding, go for immediate medical check up.

  43. QUESTION:
    Can birth control have a huge effect on emotions?
    My girlfriend (maybe X girlfriend) are on a break to work on some issues. I had noticed that about a month after going on birth control that she has turned into a different person. Is it possible for birth control to have that much of an effect on a person's emotions and moods? She was always very happy and care free and now she snaps a lot at everyone and seems to be blowing things way out of proportion. I think that if she went off the pill we would have many less issues. Please help!

    • ANSWER:
      Absolutely. She may not be able to handle them. This kind of birth control uses hormones to suppress ovulation and deteriorate the uterine lining to make implantation impossible. Some people are more sensitive to it than others. You know how emotional people get during hormonal changes like pregnancy, menopause, and puberty. She's probably not having a lot of fun.

  44. QUESTION:
    I have begun menopause, but want to get pregnant?
    I am 29, just found out I have begun menopause. I have not had a period in 6 months. Surely with today's modern technology there has to be a way for us to have a baby???

    • ANSWER:
      Did your doctor tell you that you were in perimenopause? While it is possible, 29 is unusually young to begin the perimenopause process. Not having a period for 6 months could be the symptom of many different things. While it is true that some women simply stop having periods, it is much more common for there to be a range of time when periods gradually become irregular before stopping. Until you have gone 12 months without having a period you are still going through perimenopause, which can take 2-8 years to complete. You can still conceive during the perimenopause years as ovulation still occurs, but conception can only occur in those months when an egg actually is released. For women who have gone through early menopause or older women who are menopausal but want to have a baby, there are fertility methods to allow them to have a baby. It does involve using donor eggs, though, as the eggs of a woman who is menopausal are not viable. I would discuss the options with your doctor who can refer you to a fertility specialist. If nothing else, it would be good to find out why you haven't had a period for 6 months. Is it possible you are already pregnant? If your current doctor is not helpful then you should get a second opinion.

  45. QUESTION:
    What is the meaning of "periods of a girl"?
    I have heard the word periods. What is the meaning of that? How it is related to pregnancy? Why women needs pad for periods?
    Please tell in simple words not scientific without using abusive words.

    • ANSWER:
      Menstruation (a period) is a major stage of puberty in girls; it's one of the many physical signs that a girl is turning into a woman. And like a lot of the other changes associated with puberty, menstruation can be confusing. Some girls can't wait to start their periods, whereas others may feel afraid or anxious. Many girls (and guys!) don't have a complete understanding of a woman's reproductive system or what actually happens during the menstrual cycle, making the process seem even more mysterious.
      When girls begin to go through puberty (usually starting between the ages of 8 and 13), their bodies and minds change in many ways. The hormones in their bodies stimulate new physical development, such as growth and breast development. About 2 to 2½ years after a girl's breasts begin to develop, she usually gets her first menstrual period About 6 months or so before getting her first period, a girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for a girl to worry about discharge unless it has a strong odor or causes itchiness.

      The start of periods is known as menarche. Menarche doesn't happen until all the parts of a girl's reproductive system have matured and are working together.

      The Female Reproductive System:-

      Baby girls are born with ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a uterus. The two ovaries are oval-shaped and sit on either side of the uterus (womb) in the lowest part of the abdomen called the pelvis. They contain thousands of eggs, or ova. The two fallopian tubes are long and thin. Each fallopian tube stretches from an ovary to the uterus, a pear-shaped organ that sits in the middle of the pelvis. The muscles in a female's uterus are powerful and are able to expand to allow the uterus to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor.

      As a girl matures and enters puberty, the pituitary gland releases hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce other hormones called estrogen and progesterone. These hormones have many effects on a girl's body, including physical maturation, growth, and emotions.

      About once a month, a tiny egg leaves one of the ovaries — a process called ovulation — and travels down one of the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. In the days before ovulation, the hormone estrogen stimulates the uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue, making the walls of the uterus thick and cushioned. This happens to prepare the uterus for pregnancy: If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the cushion wall of the uterus, where it slowly develops into a baby.

      If the egg isn't fertilized, though — which is the case during most of a woman's monthly cycles — it doesn't attach to the wall of the uterus. When this happens, the uterus sheds the extra tissue lining. The blood, tissue, and unfertilized egg leave the uterus, going through the vagina on the way out of the body. This is a menstrual period. This cycle happens almost every month for several more decades (except, of course, when a female is pregnant) until a woman reaches menopause and no longer releases eggs from her ovaries.

  46. QUESTION:
    why do we bleed when we have our period and do we release our eggs when we bleed?
    why do we bleed, do we regenerate blood? and do we release eggs when we have it and also, do we make more eggs if we do release them?

    • ANSWER:
      when we bleed, what is actually happening is the lining of our uterus shedding...when the body realizes it is not pregnant, the lining is not needed (as it's used to help a fertilized egg grow and become a fetus). You do not generally ovulate during your period. The first day of your period is day one of your cycle...ovulation usually occurs on days 12-17. This is also the time that the lining is regenerating - getting ready for a possible fertilized egg...when there is none, it sheds and thus you have your period - and start the cycle over.

      we are born with a specific amount of eggs in our ovaries, so no ... eggs don't regenerate, but there's more than enough to last a woman to menopause.

  47. QUESTION:
    I am 54 years old, been going through peri-menopause for 6 years now. I have been taking progesterone for 12?
    I have been taking progerterone for 12 days of the month each month to help with the mood swings-just been doing this for this year. I noticed lately that my joints were hurting and had a slight headache and a light rash on my chest with a little rash on my ankles. Could this be because of the hormonal changes I have been going through. Peri-menopause for me has been very rough.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello LJ,

      During the perimenopausal period some subtle — and some not-so-subtle — changes in your body may occur. Some things you might experience include:

      Menstrual irregularity. As ovulation becomes more erratic, the intervals between periods may be longer or shorter, your flow may be scanty to profuse, and you may skip some periods. Early perimenopause is defined as a change in your menstrual cycle length of more than seven days. Late perimenopause is characterized by two or more missed periods and an interval of 60 days or more between periods.

      Hot flashes and sleep problems. About 65 to 75 percent of women experience hot flashes, most commonly during late perimenopause. The intensity, duration and frequency vary. Sleep problems are often due to hot flashes or night sweats, but sometimes sleep becomes erratic even without them.

      Mood changes. Some women experience mood swings, irritability or increased risk of depression during perimenopause, but the cause of these symptoms may be sleep disruption caused by hot flashes. Mood changes may also be caused by factors not related to the hormonal changes of perimenopause.

      Vaginal and bladder problems. When estrogen levels diminish, your vaginal tissues may lose lubrication and elasticity, making intercourse painful. Low estrogen levels may also leave you more vulnerable to urinary or vaginal infections. Loss of tissue tone may contribute to urinary incontinence.

      Decreasing fertility. As ovulation becomes irregular, your ability to conceive decreases. However, as long as you're having periods, pregnancy remains a possibility. If you wish to avoid pregnancy, use birth control until you've had no periods for 12 months.

      Changes in sexual function. During perimenopause, sexual arousal and desire may change. But for most women who had satisfactory sexual intimacy before menopause, this will continue through perimenopause and beyond.

      Loss of bone. With declining estrogen levels, you start to lose bone more quickly than you replace it, increasing your risk of osteoporosis.

      Changing cholesterol levels. Declining estrogen levels may lead to unfavorable changes in your blood cholesterol levels, including an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol — the "bad" cholesterol — which contributes to an increased risk of heart disease. At the same time, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol — decreases in many women as they age, which also increases the risk of heart disease.

      I hope this answers a few of your questions,

      Mama Bear

  48. QUESTION:
    Do ovarian cysts usually need to be surgically removed?
    I was told today after getting MRI results that I need to see an oncologist. I always thought that most ovarian cysts and fibroids are not cancer. I have no symptoms, no pain, no bleeding.
    Do you think I'll have to have that godd-awful test called a 'Hysterosonography?'
    the report mentioned that I should go for a transvaginal sonogram for more information.

    • ANSWER:
      Typically, ovarian cysts are functional (not disease or cancer related) and occur as a normal process of ovulation. During the days before ovulation, a follicle grows. But at the time of expected ovulation, the follicle fails to break open and release an egg, as it is supposed to. Instead, the fluid within the follicle remains and forms a cyst.

      Functional, or physiological, ovarian cysts usually disappear within 8-12 weeks without treatment. They are relatively common, and are more common during a woman's childbearing years (puberty to menopause). Ovarian cysts are rare after menopause.

      Functional ovarian cysts are not the same as ovarian tumors (including ovarian cancer) or cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovarian disease. Some non-functional ovarian cysts must be treated to go away.

      An ovarian cyst can cause pain if it pushes on nearby structures, ruptures or bleeds. Pain may also occur if the cyst is twisted or causes twisting (torsion) of the fallopian tube.

      Symptoms of ovarian cysts can include:

      * Pelvic pain - constant, dull aching
      * Pain with intercourse or pelvic pain during movement
      * Pain during bowel movements
      * Pelvic pain shortly after beginning or ending a menstrual period
      * Abnormal uterine bleeding (change from normal menstrual pattern)
      * Longer than usual menstrual cycle
      * Shorter than usual menstrual cycle
      * Absent menstruation
      * Irregular menstruation
      * Abdominal bloating or swelling

      Often no symptoms are noted and ovarian cysts are found only be routine examinations. Usually birth control pills may be prescribed to help establish normal cycles and decrease the development of functional ovarian cysts.

      Simple ovarian cysts that are larger than 5-10 centimetres and complex ovarian cysts that persist should and will usually be surgically removed via laparoscopy (minimal invasive surgery).

      I would recommend that you discuss all the details such as the type of cyst, size of cyst etc with your doctor/gyno and ask them to answer any questions or concerns you may have.

      I have suffered from many bilateral ovarian cysts over the past 10 years and have had to have surgery 2 times to the cysts removed (it wasn't anything too serious).

      I hope this helps to answer your question. Good luck :)

  49. QUESTION:
    When can a woman have sex and not get pregnant?
    And don't say "MENOPAUSE", I mean when a woman is still fertile. Does she have a certain period of time when she can have sex and not get pregnant?

    • ANSWER:
      You can have sex on days when you aren't ovulating. Based on averages, a woman ovulates at around 14-20 days from the first day of her period. But it would be good advice to not depend on these averages. I ovulated 3 days after my period. I had sex because I thought I wasn't ovulating then I got pregnant. I wasn't having any of the sticky mucus-like discharge during ovulation as well.

      You can use an ovulation predictor kit since this is more accurate than basing your ovulation days on averages and on vaginal discharge.

      Any form of contraception is also not 100% effective. So any time you have sex, pregnancy is ALWAYS a possibility. The chances just slim down when you don't ovulate because there is no egg the sperm can fertilize.

      Good luck :)

  50. QUESTION:
    How risky is it to have a biopsy test of uterus ?
    Can it cause a future complication in health or the particular area touched for biopsy test be disturbed in the long run.? please suggest.

    • ANSWER:
      An endometrial biopsy is a way for your doctor to take a small sample of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). The sample is looked at under a microscope for abnormal cells. An endometrial biopsy helps your doctor find any problems in the endometrium. It also lets your doctor check to see if your body's hormone levels that affect the endometrium are in balance.

      The lining of the uterus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle. Early in the menstrual cycle, the lining grows thicker until a mature egg is released from an ovary (ovulation). If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm, the lining is shed during normal menstrual bleeding.

      There are several ways to do an endometrial biopsy. Your doctor may use:

      * A soft, straw-like device (pipelle) to suction a small sample of lining from the uterus. This method is fast and is not very painful.
      * A sharp-edged tool called a curette. Your doctor will scrape a small sample and collect it with a syringe or suction. This is called a dilation and curettage (D&C). A D&C may be done to control heavy uterine bleeding (hemorrhage) or to help find the cause of bleeding. This is done with general or regional anesthesia.
      * An electronic suction device (Vabra aspiration). This method can be uncomfortable.
      * A spray of liquid (jet irrigation) to wash off some of the tissue that lines the uterus. A brush may be used to remove some of the lining before the washing is done.

      When a woman is having a hard time becoming pregnant, an endometrial biopsy may be done to see whether the lining of her uterus can support a pregnancy.

      An endometrial biopsy may also be done to find the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding, to check for overgrowth of the lining (endometrial hyperplasia), or to check for cancer.

      An endometrial biopsy is sometimes done at the same time as another test, called hysteroscopy, which allows your doctor to look through a small lighted tube at the lining of the uterus.
      Why It Is Done

      An endometrial biopsy is done to:

      * Check for cancer. For example, an endometrial biopsy may be done to help determine the cause of some abnormal Pap test results.
      * Find the cause of heavy, prolonged, or irregular uterine bleeding. It is often done to find the cause of uterine bleeding in women who have gone through menopause.
      * See whether the lining of the uterus (endometrium) is going through the normal menstrual cycle changes.

      How To Prepare

      Tell your doctor if you:

      * Are or might be pregnant. An endometrial biopsy is not done during pregnancy.
      * Are taking any medicines.
      * Are allergic to any medicines.
      * Have had bleeding problems or take blood-thinners, such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin).
      * Have been treated for a vaginal, cervical, or pelvic infection.
      * Have any heart or lung problems.

      Do not douche, use tampons, or use vaginal medicines for 24 hours before the biopsy. You will empty your bladder just before your biopsy.

      You may want to take a pain reliever, such as ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), 30 to 60 minutes before having the biopsy. This can help decrease any cramping pain that can be caused by the biopsy.

      You will need to sign a consent form that says you understand the risks of an endometrial biopsy and agree to have the test done. Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results may mean. To help you understand the importance of this test, fill out the medical test information form Click here to view a form. (What is a PDF document?) .

      If you are having a dilation and curettage (D&C) and will go to sleep (general anesthesia) for the test, do not eat or drink anything for 8 hours before the test. If you are taking any medicines, ask your doctor what medicines you can take the day of the test.
      How It Is Done
      Endometrial biopsy

      An endometrial biopsy is usually done by a gynecologist, a family medicine physician, or a nurse practitioner who has been trained to do the test. The sample will be looked at by a pathologist. The biopsy can be done in your doctor's office.

      Your cervix may be numbed with a spray or injection of local anesthetic.

      You will need to take off your clothes below the waist. You will be given a covering to drape around your waist. You will then lie on your back on an examination table with your feet raised and supported by foot rests (stirrups).

      Your doctor will put an instrument with smooth, curved blades (speculum) into your vagina. The speculum gently spreads apart the vaginal walls so your doctor can see inside the vagina and the cervix. See a picture of a pelvic examination with a speculum. The cervix is washed with a special solution and may be grasped and held in place with a clamp called a tenaculum.

      The tool to collect the sample is guided through the cervix into the uterus. The tool may be moved up and down to collect the sample. Most wome


ovulation during menopause