Tag Archives: menopause alternative treatments

Menopause Alternative Treatments

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is a natural way to deal with menopause?
    I had cancer of the cervix, and the radiation treatment threw me into early menopause. What is a natural alternative to hormones?

    • ANSWER:
      As far as I know, and I have read all the latest info about natural alternatives to hormones, nothing really helps. The only remedy (partly a remedy) was to take some of the anti-anxiety medication like Prozac etc. Of course there are natural anti depressants (look at this site)
      http://www.menopause.realage.com/content.aspx/topic/17
      but I am not sure how well they alleviate the symptoms. I wish I kept these medical journals I get to give you the reference. If I find it I will let you have it.

  2. QUESTION:
    Has anyone taken herbal oestrogens do they work?
    I am getting symptoms of menopause like night sweats, aches fuzzy head dizzy spells etc, that point to a drop in oestrogen levels, I thought about trying the natural herbal oestrogen replacements, but there are so many. Has anyone taken them and did they actually work?

    • ANSWER:
      No.

      In the UK, a recent national guideline from Clinical Knowledge Summaries states that "CKS does not recommend the use of complementary therapies". The reasons include:

      * They have not been shown convincingly to work very well.
      * There is very little control over the quality of the products available, which may vary.
      * Some of these treatments (ginseng, black cohosh, and red clover) have oestrogenic properties and should not be used in women who should not take oestrogen (for example, women with breast cancer).
      * Long-term safety (for example, effects on the breast and lining of the uterus) have not been assessed.
      * Some may have serious side-effects. For example, severe liver damage has been reported with black cohosh and Java. Kava has been withdrawn from the UK market because of concerns over safety.
      * Dong quai and some species of red clover contain chemicals called coumarins, which make them unsuitable if you take anticoagulants (such as warfarin).

      A consensus statement from the British Menopause Society also states ...

      "This guidance regarding alternative and complementary therapies is in response to the increased use of these strategies by women who believe them to be safer and more ‘natural’. The choice is confusing. Evidence from randomised trials that alternative and complementary therapies improve menopausal symptoms or have the same benefits as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is poor. A major concern is interaction with other treatments, with potentially fatal consequences. Some preparations may contain estrogenic compounds, and this is a concern for women with hormone-dependent diseases, such as breast cancer. Concern also exists about the quality control of production."

      For night sweats you could try Clonidine. You need to have a chat with your GP really.

  3. QUESTION:
    I am looking for a good healty concealer to cover my acne scars. What would be a good one?
    I have tried all of MACS concealers and liked them. However, they clogged my pores. I am looking for a healthy alternative concealer. I am switching to mineral makeup but need a good concealer because mineral makeup doesn't give you much coverage.

    • ANSWER:
      Acne is one of the most common skin disorders and affects mainly young people, but may even appear after the age of 30 years. This condition in many cases tends to disappear by itself after a certain period of time, however, if it is left untreated, it can cause deep scars in the skin. Acne can also cause psychological problems, especially among young people.

      These are the causes of this disorder:

      Excessive hormone production: Every square centimeter of skin contains about 100 sweat glands and 15 sebaceous glands that exist at the base of the hair and produce a substance called sebum. Sebum combined with sweat, form a liquid that acts as barrier against bacteria, parasites and fungus. However, under certain conditions the sebaceous glands produce more sebum than necessary. These conditions occur when there is a major hormonal change, such as an increase in androgens during puberty and an increase of progesterone during menopause. It seems that certain people have a strong sensitivity to these hormones and are therefore more likely to suffer from acne.
      Genetic factors: If your parents used to suffer from this disorder you are more likely to have it yourself. What is more, oily skin (which can be inherited) predisposes to acne due to the fact that it produces excessive sebum that blocks the skin's pores.

      Stress: Stress can increase the production of hormones, which cause acne outbreaks.

      Dietary factors: The excessive intake of fats, sweets, carbohydrates, alcohol and dairy products seem to make the situation worse. Sugar, in particular, is very harmful. In fact, certain pharmacological experiments have revealed that taking small doses of anti-diabetic medicines (which lower sugar in the blood) can improve acne.

      Constipation: surprisingly constipation can cause acne. Constipation leads to the failure to eliminate the toxins that accumulate in different parts of the body and particularly in the skin. Many times in fact, mild cases of acne have been cured due to the correction of this intestinal disorder.

      How to cure this problem:

      Drink plenty of water: it may sound too simple, but the most important thing to do is to drink at least eight glasses of water every day. Water is very beneficial for your skin's health.

      Drink green tea: another great natural treatment is green tea. It also has many other health benefits: it can reduce high cholesterol, infections, viruses, high blood sugar, headaches, and joint discomfort.

      Include fruits in your diet: There are many acids found in fruits that can help reduce sebum, which blocks the pores. Fruits can also eliminate excess toxins that build up in body and reduce the swelling and redness of spots. The best fruits to eat are apples, grapes and oranges. Also, including fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables in your diet can also help you get a better complexion.

      Although, these tips can be helpful but the only way to correct this problem permanently is to balance your hormones.

      .........

  4. QUESTION:
    Has anyone ever been prescribed to get a shot called Lupron Depot?
    I have been recently diagnosed with endometriosis and my treatment is to get a Lupron Depot shot, every 3 months for 9 months and I am very weary about medications especially injections. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      The injection throws you into menopause without removing your ovaries. Its supposed to get rid of your pain. Get ready for menopause symptoms. Dont worry about the injection. Thats the easy part. If your having heavy bleeding. It will stop that too.
      Also, its only a temporary fix. You will return to normal after you stop taking the shots and be back in pain again and have to have an alternative treatment.
      Sorry.

  5. QUESTION:
    Are there any options for fibroid treatment?
    I am working on my research on fibroid; how does it effect women and what are the sign/symptoms. But the question is: what type of treatment that can be much safer and curable for women when recover from a fibroid.

    • ANSWER:
      Fibroids can be treated with medication or surgery.

      Treating fibroids with medication

      GnRHA

      GnRHA (gonadotropin released hormone agonist), administered by injection. GnRHAs make the woman's body produce much lower quantities of estrogen, which makes the fibroids shrink. GnRHA stops the woman's menstrual cycle. It is important to remember that GNRHAs are not contraceptives, and they do not affect a woman's fertility when she stops treatment.

      GNRHAs are also very helpful for women who have heavy periods and discomfort in their abdomen. GNRHAs may have menopause-like symptoms as their main side-effect, this might include hot flashes (UK: flushes), a tendency to sweat more, and vaginal dryness. Although thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) is also a possible side-effect, it is rare.

      GnRHAs may be administered to the patient before surgery in order to shrink the fibroids. GNRHAs are for short-term, not long-term use.

      GNRHAs combined with HRT (hormone replacement therapy) are sometimes prescribed to prevent menopause-like symptoms.

      Other drugs may be used to treat fibroids; however, they are less effective for larger fibroids. These include:

      Tranexamic acid - they are presented in tablet form and are taken by the patient from the day pre menstrual period starts for up to 4 days. This is done each month. If symptoms do not improve within three months the patient should stop taking this medication. Tranexamic acid helps blood in the uterus clot, which reduces bleeding. A woman's fertility will not be affected by this treatment as soon as it is over.

      Anti-inflammatory drugs - these medications are taken for a few days during the patient's menstrual period. They may include such drugs as mefanamic and ibuprofen. Anti-inflammatory medications reduce the amount of prostaglandins the body produces. Prostaglandins are hormones which are associated with heavy periods. These drugs are also painkillers. They do not affect a woman's fertility.

      The contraceptive pill - these are used to stop menstruation from occurring.

      LNG-IUS (Levonorgestrel intrauterine system) - this is a plastic device which is placed inside the uterus. LNH-IUS releases levonorgestrel (progestogen hormone). This hormone stops the lining of the uterus from growing too fast, which effectively reduces bleeding. One of the side-effects of this treatment is irregular bleeding for up to six months, headaches, breast tenderness, and acne. In very rare cases it can stop the woman's periods.

      Surgery to treat fibroids

      When medications have not worked, the patient may have to undergo surgery to cure the Fibroids. The following surgical procedures may be considered:

      Hysterectomy - removing the uterus. This is only ever considered if the fibroids are very large, or if the patient is bleeding too much. Hysterectomies are sometimes considered as an option to stop recurrences of fibroids (stop them coming back). Hysterectomies have two possible side-effects: 1. Reduced libido. 2. Early menopause.

      Myomectomy - the fibroids are surgically removed from the wall of the uterus. This option is more popular for women who want to get pregnant (as opposed to a hysterectomy). Women with large fibroids, as well as those whose fibroids are located in particular parts of the uterus may not be able to benefit from this procedure.

      Endometrial ablation - this involves removing the lining of the uterus. This procedure may be used if the patient's fibroids are near the inner surface of the uterus. This procedure is considered as an effective alternative to a hysterectomy.

      UAE (Uterine Artery Embolization) - this treatment stops the fibroid from getting its blood supply. UAE is generally used for women with large fibroids. UAEs effectively shrink the fibroid. A chemical is injected through a catheter into a blood vessel in the leg - it is guided by X-ray scans.

      Magnetic-resonance-guided percutaneous laser ablation - an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is used to locate the fibroids. Then very fine needles are inserted through the patient's skin and pushed until they reach the targeted fibroids. A fiber-optic cable is inserted through the needles. A laser light goes through the fiber-optic cable, hits the fibroids and shrinks them.

      Magnetic-resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery -" an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan locates the fibroids, and then sound waves are aimed at them. This procedure also shrinks the fibroids.

      Most experts say Magnetic-resonance-guided percutaneous laser ablation and Magnetic-resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery are both effective - however, there is some uncertainty regarding their benefits vs. risks.

  6. QUESTION:
    Can acupuncture help with chronic pain and menopausal symptoms?
    What are the best alternative methods to help cope with chronic pain and menopause. On HRT but is there a better one for me?

    • ANSWER:
      Chinese Medicine can help with chronic pain and menopausal symptoms. Acupuncture excels on its own for the treatment of pain. However, a combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine is generally more effective for menopausal issues.

      Chronic pain will often *start* responding to acupuncture within the first or second treatment.

      Menopause treatment can take somewhat longer to start showing more lasting positive effects.

      If you are in the United States you can find a board certified acupuncturist in your area at: http://www.nccaom.org

  7. QUESTION:
    Is a migraine behind eyes and hot flush feeling on left side normal heading into menopause?
    I'm just wondering because it feels like I only get hot on the left side but it radiates to the right...I can feel my left side of my face heat up, but I don't sweat and my face doesn't get red. Or does it sound like something neurological?

    • ANSWER:
      OOOh yes! migraine, stress, anxiety, and many others bad feelings..No hormone replacement please, but natural therapeuty..try this : http://menopauseandweight.com/ Don’t let menopause ruin your quality of life! and Change to alternative and proven methods, natural treatments.
      GOG bless

  8. QUESTION:
    What's the best thing for menopause symptoms, that you can buy over the counter?
    There are so many things on the shelf loaded with vitamins and herbs. What really works? Does anyone have any experience with these. I'm over 40 and had a total hysterectomy at 37. I'm on the patch, but my GYN doesn't want to raise it. I still get hot flashes, and I'd like to go natural. I also take a progesterone pill at night.

    • ANSWER:
      I would like to suggest Menozac which is one of the best menopause symptom relief product on the market. Why?

      First, because it is made to meet pharmaceutical standards. Second, it uses only the finest, most bio-available natural nutrients. Third, every production batch is tested in a lab to ensure its purity and potency.

      Even some herbal experts also highly recommend using this type of herbal, safe and natural menopause treatment. By taking this natural alternative you will avoid the side effects and health risks, and help treat your symptoms naturally.

  9. QUESTION:
    Anyone out there tired of these awful menopause symptoms?
    Hate these (blankity-blank) Hot flashes. Feels like my head is on fire. Ugh!!!!

    I hate getting old, but I guess considering the alternative, I guess it's ok.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Roz. I'm answering from the male perspective (I've had night sweats), and from an empathetic perspective - I have 5 sisters in various stages of menopause and a partner (Sassy) who just came off hormone replacement therapy and into the pit called menopause after a cervical cancer scare. And before going any further - I'm not a doctor. I'm able to diagnose and fix machines. People? Not so much.
      Sassy found a silver bullet for her hot flashes - venlafaxine (a generic substitute for Effexor) - although it did cause a dry mouth as a side effect. It was originally a prescription drug used to treat depression, but recently it was approved for use in treating menopause symptoms; many doctors aren't even aware of that use for the drug. If you're OK with drugs, and your doctor will write the prescription, the venlafaxine may work for you too. Keep in mind that your side effects may vary - or it may not work at all.
      Regardless, Sassy and I put together a web page (below) with comments about diet, herbal remedies, and some other ways to get relief from night sweats, hot flashes, etc. Keep in mind that herbal treatments for night sweats and hot flashes can be broken down into two categories: phytoestrogen and non-estrogenic herbs, and each has their proponents. Hope this helps.

  10. QUESTION:
    Is it smart to use a BIRTH CONTROL PATCH prior to losing virginity?
    Hi, I am a 22 year old virgin who's planning to lose it to my boyfriend soon. Do you think it's a smart move to start on the patch already before actually doing it?

    • ANSWER:
      Here are a few links if you'd like to learn more about the Big Announcement on Friday December 15th that, WITHOUT A DOUBT, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) causes breast cancer. Since the time when women were discouraged from taking HRT back in 2001-2002, breast cancer rates have sharply dropped by an unprecedented 7%! In the scientific community, this is a bombshell proof positive of the connection. Note that breast cancer rates originally started increasing rapidly when birth control pills and now other forms of hormonal birth control began to be widely used. Hormonal birth control methods contain the SAME hormones that are also the most widely used in HRT (estrogen and progestin). Hormonal birth control methods include; The Pill, The Mini-Pill, The Patch, some types of IUDs, Nuva Ring, Depo Shots, and Nor-Plant. Hormone levels in HRT are actually lower than levels found in hormonal birth control methods. Consider that on top of the fact that hormonal birth control methods are used by young healthy women with already normal levels of naturally occurring hormones. They’re getting MASSIVE dosages, even with the more modern low-dose pills being used.

      How long will we have to wait before the medical community admits to women that hormonal birth control methods are just as dangerous as HRT? I have a feeling that it will be much longer, as hormonal birth control is considered to be the "holy grail" of "women's reproductive freedom". Never mind that women are dying of breast cancer at alarmingly increasing rates since 1974, around the time when landmark cases were decided and BC pills began to be more widely used. Thirty years later, we are reaping the "benefits" of artificial hormones that are used to suppress and tinker with the natural processes of the female body.

      The female bodily functions of ovulation, pregnancy and menopause ARE NOT ILLNESSES. Medications should only be taken when it's absolutely necessary to prevent or cure ILLNESS, and then ONLY if the benefit outweighs the risks. If you have a medical condition that your doctor wants to treat with hormones, make sure to do YOUR research and challenge his or her opinion. Get a second or even a third opinion. Explore alternative treatments. Doctors are not infallible and in the end, only YOU can determine the best course of action with regard to your health. Only after you’ve exhausted your other options, if it is apparent that hormones are the only treatment that makes sense, then by all means, DO IT.

      If you must practice birth control and cannot try abstinence; condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps used correctly with plenty of spermicide gel or foam, are STATISTICALLY JUST AS EFFECTIVE as hormonal birth control. Condoms also decrease your chances of contracting an STD and they don't work by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg, like hormonal birth control does. If you are pro-life and believe that life begins at conception, this last point should be of particular interest to you. Abortifacient types of birth control also include non-hormonal types of IUDs, which work exclusively by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg…they don’t even ATTEMPT to stop ovulation and subsequent fertilization…and they can cause uterine perforations and other complications. Even if you DON’T have any moral objection to the abortifacient birth control methods, at least stop using hormonal birth control and IUDs for the sake of your own health!

      HOW HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND HORMONAL BIRTH CONTROL METHODS HAVE NOW DEFINITELY BEEN SHOWN TO CAUSE CANCER
      http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1025191125.html
      http://www.cnn.com/2006/HEALTH/12/15/gupta.breast.cancer/
      ALTERNATIVES TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
      http://www.womentowomen.com/bioidentical-hrt/index.asp?id=1&campaignno=getoffhrt&adgroup=adgroup2&keywords=hormone+replacement+therapy
      http://www.power-surge.com
      HOW SOME TYPES OF BIRTH CONTROL CAN CAUSE ABORTION WITHOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE, ALONG WITH INFORMATION ABOUT NON-HORMONAL BARRIER BIRTH CONTROL METHODS THAT ARE JUST AS EFFECTIVE
      http://abort73.com/HTML/II-D-2-types.html
      THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BIRTH CONTROL AND HOW IT IS ANTI-WOMAN
      http://www.the-edith-stein-foundation.com/articles.asp?col=2

  11. QUESTION:
    Ladies I have a Q on menopause symptoms and how to dodge them?
    what have you experienced besides the (in)famous hot flashes and what did you do about it? (Apart from SHT hormone therapy which I can't do) Txs!

    • ANSWER:
      I went through menopause without really knowing too much that I was,as I was still on the pill. I still had the hot flushes tho. Many of my friends go to health food stores there are many alternative treatments there, most work really well Good Luck

  12. QUESTION:
    Do any female animals experience menopause?
    If so, at what age do they experience it and what are the signs of menopause in say for example a rabbit.

    If not, how can you tell that an animal is to old to conceive a baby animal.

    I am mostly wondering about rabbits but I also want to know about any animal.

    • ANSWER:
      Humans (female) are a species that experience menopause. Info follows:

      Menopause
      Menopause is quite simply the final pause of menstruation. This phase of a woman's life is part of the natural aging process. It is not a disease or a disaster. Your ovaries slowly reduce the level of hormones (estrogen and progesterone) they produce and child bearing is no longer an option. For many women this is a big relief. Generally speaking, health professionals agree that 52 is the average age when full menopause takes affect. The full age range is between 42 to 56.

      Menopause is preceded by perimenopause and followed by post menopause. All three stages come with their own telltale signs with considerable overlap from one to the other. So, unlike the beginning of your period, which seems to happen in a single moment of time, menopause is very wishy washy. Full menopause is considered to be in effect when you have not had your period for a full year.

      Menopause is not experienced by all women in the same way. Much depends on the individual's diet, lifestyle, genetics and attitudes held by the woman, her family, culture and society about aging. If you come from a world that does not respect older people, and is narrowly focused on youth, your menopause transition period may be more difficult to navigate. However, you may also experience deep personal growth and a strong sense of liberation.

      Be aware that our commercialized society will try to medicalize your symptoms. Be wise. Look for natural alternatives before getting on the pill band wagon. Weigh the risks and benefits carefully. Become your own authority.

      There is a home-use test that you can take to determine if you are perimenopausal or fully menopausal. U.S Food and Drug Administration approved kits measure Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) in your urine. FSH is a hormone produced by your pituitary gland. FSH levels increase temporarily each month to stimulate your ovaries to produce eggs. When you enter menopause and your ovaries stop working your FSH levels also increase. The test will provide a FSH level reading so that you can determine what stage of "the Pause" you are at.

      As for rabbits, this study may interest you:

      Lack of difference among progestins on the anti-atherogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol: a rabbit study
      Peter Alexandersen1,3, Jens Haarbo1, Pieter Zandberg2, Jørgen Jespersen1, Sven O. Skouby1 and Claus Christiansen1
      1 Center for Clinical & Basic Research, Ballerup Byvej 222, 2750 Ballerup, Denmark and 2 Department of Vascular Pharmacology, N.V.Organon, Molenstraat 110, 5340 BH Oss, The Netherlands

      3 To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: pa@ccbr.dk

      Abstract
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      BACKGROUND: Progestins in combination with estrogen are believed to have different effects on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different oral contraceptive formulations on the development of experimental atherosclerosis and vascular reactivity. METHODS: A total of 160 sexually mature rabbits were ovariectomized and randomly assigned to equally large groups: (i) a cholesterol-rich diet (320 mg/day), either given alone (placebo), or together with (ii) ethinyl estradiol (EE 70 µg/day, oral), (iii) desogestrel (DSG 525 µg/day, oral), (iv) gestodene (GSD 262.5 µg/day, oral), (v) levonorgestrel (LNG 525 µg/day, oral), (vi) EE + DSG, (vii) EE + LNG, or (viii) EE + GSD. After 31 weeks of treatment, aortic accumulation of cholesterol and vascular vasoreactivity (in vitro) were determined. RESULTS: Progestins alone did not reduce the accumulation of cholesterol. EE alone or in combination with a progestin reduced the accumulation of cholesterol relative to placebo (P < 0.0001). Isolated vessels from EE-treated animals relaxed significantly more to physiological concentrations of acetylcholine than did placebo (P < 0.001), whereas vessels treated with EE plus a progestin showed an intermediate response. CONCLUSION: The progestins investigated can be combined with EE without attenuating the anti-atherogenic effect of EE.

      Key words: atherosclerosis/estrogen/progestins/rabbits/vascular reactivity

      Introduction
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      The question of whether oral contraceptive (OC) formulations increase the risk of arterial events (such as myocardial infarction) in younger women remains unsolved. Several recent case–control studies have reported an increased risk of myocardial infarction in women using OC compared with non-users (Jick et al., 1996; Lewis et al., 1996; 1997; World Health Organization, 1997; Lewis, 1998; Dunn et al., 1999; 2001; Farley et al., 1999; Tanis et al., 2001; Rosendaal et al., 2002), although other recent data have not confirmed this observation (Sidney et al., 1998). Recent European studies have indicated that OC use is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, in contrast to US studies that found no increased risk among OC users (Lewis 1998; Sidney et al., 1998). Only a few studies have directly compared the effect on myocardial infarction of OC formulations containing a second-generation progestin (levonorgestrel) with those containing third-generation progestins (desogestrel or gestodene) (Jick et al., 1996; Lewis et al., 1996; 1997; World Health Organization, 1997; Dunn et al., 2001; Tanis et al., 2001), but they were all designed as case–control studies; the reported relative risk in these studies varies (between 0.3 and 1.8), and the numbers are small.

      The relative preponderance in venous events (e.g. deep venous thrombosis) as compared with arterial events (e.g. myocardial infarction) in pre-menopausal women is gradually equalized as the menopause is reached, so that the relative frequency of these events is close to 1:1 in peri-menopausal women. Since OC are prescribed for millions of pre-menopausal (and peri-menopausal) women who use these formulations for many years, it would be of the utmost public health importance to establish even a small increase in the relative risk. Therefore, the issue of OC in relation to arterial disease is highly relevant. It should be borne in mind, however, that it is possible that for both OC and HRT users, there may be prothrombotic mechanisms in relation to arterial as well as venous complications that are not necessarily based on atherosclerosis, but that are reflected in the population-based studies. Primary (Rossouw et al., 2002) and secondary (Grady et al., 2002) prevention studies of HRT have failed to show cardioprotection in post-menopausal women.

      We report here the results from an experimental study in rabbits of atherosclerosis designed to investigate the effect of estrogen (ethinyl estradiol, EE) in combination with levonorgestrel (LNG), desogestrel (DSG), or gestodene (GSD) on vascular reactivity, lipoprotein metabolism, and the aortic accumulation of cholesterol.

      Materials and methods
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      Study design
      A total of 160 sexually mature female rabbits of the Danish Country strain (SSC:CPH) were obtained from Statens Serum Institute, Denmark. They were individually housed at room temperature (20 ± 2°C), a relative humidity of 55 ± 5%, and with a 12 h light cycle. The study was conducted in the animal facilities at the Center for Clinical & Basic Research (CCBR), Ledoeje, Denmark. After a 2 week period of acclimatization, the animals underwent bilateral ovariectomy to inhibit intrinsic production of sex hormones (Alexandersen et al., 1998). One week after surgery, the rabbits were then randomly assigned to one of the following eight treatment groups: (i) a cholesterol-rich diet (320 mg/day), either given alone (placebo), or together with (ii) EE (orally, 70 µg/day), (iii) DSG (orally, 525 µg/day), (iv) GSD (orally, 262.5 µg/day), (v) LNG (orally, 525 µg/day), (vi) EE continuously combined with DSG (doses as above) (EE + DSG), (vii) EE continuously combined with LNG (doses as above) (EE + LNG), or (viii) EE continuously combined with GSD (doses as above) (EE + GSD). We did not include a sham-operated group in this study as it was previously shown that sham operation per se in rabbits results in a mean accumulation of cholesterol that was not statistically significant from that of the non-treated control group (Haarbo et al., 1992). Hormone doses used in this study were chosen based on previous experience with these doses (the McPhail test in rabbits; EE, LNG and DSG) (van der Vies and de Visser, 1983; Sulistiyani et al., 1995; Zandberg et al., 2001) or from in-house studies (GSD). The EE dose used was kept constant in all EE groups throughout the study period (31 weeks). We used the rabbit to evaluate the effect of sex steroids on atherogenesis because it is known to be a useful model of experimental atherosclerosis (Haarbo et al., 1991; 1992; Sulistiyani et al., 1995).

      Key effect variables of the study comprised aortic atherosclerosis (i.e. fatty streaks and plaque formation), and vascular reactivity (primary key variables); and body weight, serum lipids and lipoproteins, uterus wet weight, hepatic cholesterol content, uterine estrogen receptor content, liver enzyme concentration, haemoglobin, and white cell count (secondary key variables).

      The study was approved and overviewed by the Experimental Animals Committee under the Danish Ministry of Justice. All procedures complied with the Danish guidelines for experimental animal studies.

      Rabbit chow
      Each rabbit was fed 100 g of chow per day throughout the entire study. The cholesterol-rich chow was prepared by first dissolving the hormone or the combination of hormones (all provided by N.V. Organon, The Netherlands) in ethanol (96%; 0.50 ml per animal per day), then mixing with maize oil (Unikem, Denmark). Another mixture was prepared by dissolving cholesterol (SIGC-8503; Bie & Berntsen A/S, Denmark) in maize oil by slow heating. The hormone solution and the cholesterol solution containing maize oil (total daily intake of maize oil was 8 ml per animal) were then mixed manually together with the pellets (Altromin 2123, Brogaarden, Denmark), as previously described (Alexandersen et al., 1998). Food consumption was monitored weekly by weighing remaining chow. All animals had free access to water.

      Blood samples
      Blood samples were taken at baseline (week 0) and in weeks 6, 14 and 30. Blood samples were collected from a lateral ear vein on fasting animals (24 h) and analysed at the CCBR laboratory (Ballerup, Denmark) immediately after collection, except for the progestin concentrations that were assessed at Organon.

      Safety variables
      Haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell count, leukocyte count (Sysmex K-1000; Toa Medical Electronics, Inc., USA) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) (Cobas Mira Plus; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., F.Hoffmann–La Roche, Switzerland) were determined in weeks 0, 6, 14 and 30.

      Serum lipids and lipoproteins
      Total serum cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured enzymatically by kinetic colorimetric methods (Cobas Mira). Ultracentrifuged lipoproteins were determined regularly throughout the study as described in detail elsewhere (Haarbo et al., 1991; 1992; Alexandersen et al., 1998).

      Serum progestin concentrations
      A kinetic study was performed after 16 weeks of treatment to determine the serum concentrations of the respective progestins. Blood samples were taken before dosing, and then again 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h after dosing, but taking only two samples per animal in each group (providing 40 samples per group), to give an impression of the pharmacokinetic profile of these compounds. These hormone concentrations were determined at Organon’s laboratories.

      Desogestrel
      DSG study samples were determined according to a validated assay. The limit of quantification for this study was 1.0–200 ng DSG per ml plasma DSG and its internal standard (IS), an analogue of DSG, were isolated from 0.1 ml of rabbit plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C-18 cartridges. The plasma extracts were analysed using an API 365 LC-MS-MS system. The liquid chromatograph was equipped with an analytical Luna Phenyl Hexyl column. Ion spray was applied as ionization technique, monitoring m/z 325.4 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 147.2 for DSG and m/z 339.20 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 229.1 for its IS.

      Gestodene
      GSD study samples were determined according to a validated assay. The limit of quantification for this study was 1.0–200 ng of GSD per ml plasma. GSD and its IS, an analogue of GSD, were isolated from 0.1 ml of rabbit plasma by SPE with C-18 cartridges. The plasma extracts were analysed using an API 365 LC-MS-MS system. The liquid chromatograph was equipped with an analytical Hypersil BDS C18 column. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was applied as ionization technique, monitoring m/z 311.0 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 109.1 for GSD and m/z 339.10 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 229.20 for its IS.

      Levonorgestrel
      LNG study samples were determined according to a validated assay. The limit of quantification for this study was 1.0–200 ng of LNG per ml plasma. LNG and its IS, an analogue of LNG, were isolated from 0.1 ml of rabbit plasma by SPE with C-18 cartridges. The plasma extracts were analysed using an API 365 LC-MS-MS system. The liquid chromatograph was equipped with an analytical Luna Phenyl Hexyl column. Ion spray was applied as ionization technique, monitoring m/z 313.3 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 109.2 for LNG and m/z 339.20 (M + H) with fragment ion m/z 229.10 for its IS.

      Aortic accumulation of cholesterol
      Necropsy (week 32) was done with an i.v. injection of 1–2 ml of mebumal (pentobarbital) 20% solution. The thoracic aorta (just above the aortic valves to the level of the diaphragm) was dissected free, and the connective tissue adhering to the adventitia was then carefully removed under running saline. The aorta was cut longitudinally and the luminal surface was rinsed with saline. The vessel was fixed at the corners with pins onto a piece of paper on a corkboard. The tissue was separated in two parts (a proximal and a distal part) at the level of the first intercostal arteries. The proximal part was utilized to strip the luminal layer containing the intima and part of the media from the underlying media/adventitia. The proximal part was weighed and stored at –20°C until analysed. For analysis, the luminal layer of the aortic tissue was minced and the lipids were extracted chemically with chloroform and methanol (2:1, vol/vol) over 24 h. The lipids were separated from the proteins (Haarbo et al., 1991). The total aortic cholesterol content in the tissue specimens was measured enzymatically after the fraction containing cholesterol had been taken to dryness by heating and then dissolved in 1.0 ml of 2-propanol. The amount of protein in the aorta was measured as described by Lowry (1951). The weight of the heart was recorded.

      Morphometric analysis of aortic plaque area
      The aorta (comprising the ascendant part, the arch, and the descendant part, from the aortic valves and to the first intercostal artery) was opened longitudinally and rinsed in 50% ethanol and dyed in Sudan Red for 1 min. Each aortic tissue dyed was projected onto a horizontal surface with a projecting videocamera (JAI 2040 Protec, Japan) and videotaped under microscope (Zeiss Stemi 2000/C, Germany). The images obtained were then digitized (ImagePro Plus, USA) to determine the surface involvement of atherosclerotic lesions (fatty streaks) and the total area occupied by the atheroma plaque (see below). Surface involvement by atherosclerosis in an animal was assessed by tracing the contours of the lumen expressed as percentage of the total aortic area. Summing the degree of surface involvement per animal and dividing by the number of animals in the group, the mean degree of surface involvement by atherosclerosis in a treatment group was calculated. Sudan Red was found not to significantly interfere with chemical determination of aortic accumulation of cholesterol (data not shown).

      Preparation of aortic rings and tension monitoring
      Isolated vascular segments (3–4 mm transverse sections) from the thoracic aorta were prepared from the newly killed rabbit (Furchgott and Zawadzki 1980). Five to ten rabbits randomly selected from each group were used. The rings were immediately placed in ice-cold Krebs’ solution and cleaned under careful protection of the endothelium. The Krebs’ solution consisted of (mmol/l): NaCl 118.0, KCl 4.7, CaCl2 2.6, MgSO4 1.2, KH2PO4 1.2, NaCHO3 24.9, and glucose 11.1. The isolated rings were mounted in the organ bath on two parallel and horizontal stainless steel wires (40 µm in diameter) inserted into the lumen of the vessel. The bath contained Krebs’ solution at 37°C, carbonized with 95%/5% of O2/CO2. One hook was fixed, and the other connected to a force transducer measuring the isometric tension of the ring (Myograph 400; JP Trading A/S, Denmark). Initially, the rings were stretched to a basal tension of 2.0 g and allowed to equilibrate for 45 min. From other experiments, it was found that a basal tension of 2.0 g developed the maximal active tension in the rings (data not shown), and the basal tension was therefore increased to 2.0 g before each experiment and allowed to equilibrate for ≥30 min. The rings were then contracted twice with a 126 mmol/l K+ Krebs’ solution, which is identical to Krebs solution, except that Na+ in the Krebs’ was exchanged with K+ on a molar basis. The experiment began with repeated contraction with phenylephrine to 40% of their maximal contraction with high dose potassium (126 mmol/l). Cumulative dose–response curves to acetylcholine were then obtained in the concentration range of 10–8 to 10–5 mol/l. The rings were washed and allowed to relax. The vessels were then stimulated with phenyleprine again to 50% of the maximal contractile response to 126 mmol/l of K+ , and dose–response curves were subsequently obtained for sodium nitroprusside (4x10–8 to 1.3x10–5 mol/l).

      Liver accumulation of cholesterol
      The amount of cholesterol accumulated during the study was determined after homogenization of a liver biopsy taken at the time of necropsy. Hepatic cholesterol concentrations were assessed after homogenization and adjusted for hepatic protein similarly as described for aortic cholesterol determinations (Haarbo et al., 1991).

      The uterus and endometrial tissue
      The bicornuate uterus was cut at the level of the vagina and beginning of the salpinges, removed and the wet weight determined. A sample of endometrial tissue was excised and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at –85°C until analysis. For analysis, the endometrial tissue was homogenized and centrifuged at 800 g. The supernatant was then further centrifuged at 105 000 g, and the obtained supernatant (cytosol) was used for determination of cytosolic estrogen-binding capacity by steroid-binding assay with dextran-coated charcoal separation (Thorpe, 1987). The estrogen-binding capacity was adjusted for the protein concentration in the cytosol (Bradford, 1976). The 800 g pellet was washed, the nuclear receptors extracted by 0.6 mol/l KCl (Thorpe et al., 1986) and the nuclear estrogen receptor content determined by an enzyme immunoassay (Abott Laboratories). The inter-assay variation of the estrogen-binding capacity and the estrogen receptor (immunoassay) and protein determination were 7, 6 and 5% respectively. All analyses were done without knowledge of the treatment group.

      Statistics
      The mean levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins during the treatment period were calculated as the area under the curve (AUC). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for the primary and secondary key variables. If ANOVA indicated statistical significance, Student’s t-test was used to compare groups against the placebo group using Dunnett’s correction for multiple comparisons. The relationship between aortic accumulation of cholesterol and the averaged serum total cholesterol (and lipoprotein) level was determined by correlation analysis. Dose–response curves for acetylcholine were performed for each treatment group (n = 5–10), and ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences among groups at each concentration of acetylcholine. Linear correlation was performed between accumulation of cholesterol and vascular response to acetylcholine. Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to investigate the significance of serum lipids and lipoproteins and of other non-lipid-mediated effects of the hormone treatments (independent variables) on the accumulation of cholesterol (dependent variable), and to study the degree of endothelial dysfunction (dependent variable) after correction for aortic accumulation of cholesterol and treatment (independent variables). All statistical analyses were performed with 5% as the level of significance.

      Results
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      Table I gives the baseline characteristics for the eight study groups in terms of body weight and serum lipids and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There was no statistically significant difference among groups for any variable tested. During the study, all groups significantly increased the body weight by 20% (P < 0.05). Treatment with DSG, GSD, or LNG did not significantly affect the average TC concentration (Table II). However, treatment with EE or EE plus a progestin significantly lowered average TC concentrations. Changes in TC were paralleled by modifications in the atherogenic lipoproteins (LDL-C, IDL-C, and VLDL-C) (ANOVA: P < 0.001 for all), and all hormone treatments (progestins alone or in combination with EE) significantly increased average HDL-C concentrations (ANOVA: P < 0.001).

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      Table I. Baseline characteristics

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      Table II. Mean (SEM) serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations calculated from the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)

      Cholesterol feeding per se resulted in an extensive aortic accumulation of cholesterol (nmol/mg wet weight) and this was significantly attenuated by long-term treatment with EE (P < 0.0001) or EE plus a progestin (P 0.5}.

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      Figure 1. Individual values for the aortic accumulation of cholesterol (µmol/mg wet weight) (upper part of the figure) or the morphometric data based on the area of the aortic arch covered by plaque (lower part of the figure) in the eight groups. EE = ethinyl estradiol; DGS = desogestrel; GTD = gestodene; LNG = levonorgestrel. Rabbits treated with EE alone or in combination with a progestin (DSG, GSD or LNG) had significantly lower accumulation of cholesterol and atherosclerotic plaque than placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the progestin groups and the placebo group. ***P < 0.0001 (analysis of variance).

      Morphometric analysis of the plaque covering the surface of the thoracic aorta revealed that there were significantly more atheromatous lesions in the placebo group than in the EE and the EE + progestin groups (P < 0.001 for all groups versus placebo) (Figure 1 and Figure 2). This still held true after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P < 0.0001).

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      Figure 2. Representative samples of the aortic arches used for morhometric determination of the area covered by atherosclerotic plaques. Upper panel shows examples from the placebo group (cholesterol feeding alone; placebo), and the ethinyl estradiol (EE) group; whereas the lower panel shows examples from each of the EE + progestin groups. There was significantly less plaque accumulated in the EE group and the EE + progestin groups compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). Numbers indicate animal identifications.

      Figure 3 shows the EC50 to acetylcholine for the various treatment groups (top). There was no significant difference between groups, but treatment with EE and EE plus a progestin tended to have lower EC50 values than controls. The response to two physiological doses of acetylcholine (1.0x10–7 and 3.2x10–7 mol/l) in precontracted vessels is shown (centre and bottom). Vessels treated with EE relaxed significantly more to acetylcholine than control vessels or vessels with a progestin alone (P < 0.05). Moreover, combining EE with a progestin relaxed the vessels significantly more than control vessels but to a lesser extent than with EE alone. Vasorelaxation to physiological concentrations of acetylcholine (1.0x10–7 and 3.2x10–7 mol/l) correlated significantly and inversely to aortic accumulation of cholesterol (r = –0.39 P = 0.002 and r = –0.37 P = 0.004 respectively). To study the influence of increasing accumulation of cholesterol on the endothelial dysfunction evaluated by vascular reactivity in vitro, ANCOVA was done. We found that treatment with EE significantly and independently of aortic accumulation of cholesterol restored vasorelaxation {for EE: estimate [mean (SEM)] was 49.3 (10.4)%, P = 0.0001}, whereas the other treatments with EE plus a progestin or a progestin alone [DSG, –7.7 (9.2)% (not significant); GSD, –8.5 (9.1)% (not significant); LNG, –3.2 (9.7)% (not significant); EE + DSG, 17.7 (9.4)% (P = 0.065); EE + GSD, 13.2 (10.2)% (not significant); and EE ± LNG, 17.0 (8.8)% (P = 0.058)], or accumulation of cholesterol per se [–0.1 (0.2)%] did not.

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      Figure 3. The EC50 values for acetylcholine of isolated vessels for the treatment groups (top). There was no significant difference between groups, but treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE) alone or combined with a progestin tended to have lower EC50 values than the placebo group. Long-term treatment with EE alone or combined with a progestin relaxed precontracted vessels to two physiological doses of acetylcholine [1.0x10–7 mol/l (centre) and 3.2x10–7 mol/l (bottom) significantly more than control vessels (black bar; P < 0.0001)]. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

      The uterine wet weight was significantly higher in EE-treated animals than in controls (P < 0.0001; Figure 4). Progestins had a neutral effect on uterine wet weight, while EE in combination with any of the progestins significantly increased the wet weight indicating that the progestins with the doses used were not able to completely abolish the stimulatory effect of EE on this target organ (Figure 4). The uterine cytosolic estrogen receptor (ER) concentrations were significantly lowered in the EE group (P < 0.0001) and also in each of the EE plus progestin groups (P < 0.001–0.0001) relative to the placebo group, but also the progestins alone resulted in reduced concentrations compared with controls (P < 0.001) (Table III). For the nuclear ER concentrations there was no significant differences for any of the treatment groups, but all were lower than the control group.

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      Figure 4. Uterine wet weight for the rabbits according to treatment. The wet weight was significantly higher in ethinyl estradiol (EE)-treated animals than in the control group (P < 0.0001). Progestins themselves had a neutral effect on uterine wet weight, while EE in combination with a progestin all significantly increased the wet weight (P < 0.0001). Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

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      Table III. Hepatic cholesterol content and uterine cytosolic and uterine nuclear estrogen receptor content (fmol/mg protein)

      Safety aspects in relation to the study
      Figure 5 shows that the rabbits receiving EE or EE plus a progestin had concentration peaks for the progestin between 1 and 8 h after administration, as based on the kinetic study. The differences in the area under the curve for LNG versus DSG, and EE + LNG versus EE + DSG respectively, indicate a difference in the serum concentrations of these two progestins and may, in part, reflect difference in protein binding. Nevertheless, the serum concentrations of LNG in rabbits are similar to those reported for women (Kook et al., 2002).

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      Figure 5. Mean concentrations in serum (ng/ml) of the various progestins alone or when combined with ethinyl estradiol. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.

      During the last 6–8 weeks, the animals and particularly those in the EE group ceased increasing in body weight probably as a result of general health deterioration, and in the EE group a significant number of rabbits (n = 8) did not complete the study. Autopsy of these animals suggested a toxic estrogenic effect of the liver (liver cirrhosis) and of the uterus (probably deciduocarcinoma) by macroscopic examination, as previously reported as a consequence of exogenous estrogens (Janne et al., 2001). Due to decay of the internal organs the precise cause of death could not be determined in most cases. Table IV summarizes the percentage change in ALAT, haemoglobin, and white cell count. In the EE group, eight rabbits died prematurely (mostly after week 20). The temporary increase in ALAT (week 6) in the LNG, EE + DSG, EE + GSD, and EE + LNG groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment, but never fully returned to pretreatment values (Table IV). The general health of the animals in the EE group as determined by the haemoglobin, red blood cell count and haematocrit (not shown), and clinical appearance deteriorated in the last period of the study, probably as a result of a toxic effect of the EE dose used.

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      Table IV. Mean (SEM) percentage changes from baseline in liver enzyme concentration, haemoglobin, and white cell count

      Discussion
      Top
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

      The principal results of this experimental study was that EE either alone or in continuous combination with one of the progestins used, i.e. LNG, DSG or GSD, significantly inhibited the aortic accumulation of cholesterol relative to placebo (cholesterol-feeding alone), whereas treatment with progestin monotherapy had a neutral effect on atherogenesis, irrespective of the progestin used. After adjustment for lipids and lipoproteins, there still was an apparently inhibitory effect of EE on aortic accumulation of cholesterol suggesting a lipid concentration-independent mechanism of action for EE on atherogenesis. A previous study in non-human monkeys also found that animals treated with EE in combination with LNG (as a triphasic OC formulation) had significantly less iliac artery atherosclerosis than control animals (Kaplan et al., 1995). Extrapolating experimental data to the human situation should be done with caution, but only two population-based studies have been specifically designed to investigate the role of second versus third generation OC formulations on the risk of myocardial infarction (Dunn et al., 1999; Tanis et al., 2001). In the study by Dunn et al., the relative risk was found to be increased with third generation compared with second generation OC formulations [OR, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7–4.8)], whereas in the study by Tanis et al. the relative risk was found to be decreased with third generation compared with second generation formulations [OR, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–1.1]. In addition, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (smoking and arterial hypertension) seems to be crucial for development of myocardial infarction in women taking OC (World Health Organization, 1997; Farley et al., 1998; Lewis, 1998; Petitti et al., 2000; Tanis et al., 2001). In fact, the WHO study found no increased risk of myocardial infarction in non-smoking women with no other cardiovascular risk factors who also reported blood pressure check before starting use of combined OC. Controlled, randomized studies are therefore clearly needed, although these studies will be of a considerable size taking into account the expected low incidence of myocardial infarction in pre-menopausal women (Crook and Godsland, 1998), and consequently such trials are very expensive to perform. Therefore, until clinical data on vascular endpoints are available, experimental animal studies may provide important clues in terms of the effect of various OC formulations on atherogenesis.
      Data on the direct effect of OC formulations on the human arterial system are lacking (Kuhl, 1996). We found evidence that the OC formulations used in this study had a direct effect on the arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Acetylcholine-mediated relaxation of precontracted aortic rings was increased in the EE plus progestin groups, although less than in the EE group alone as compared with placebo. EE’s significant effect on restoring vasorelaxation was found to be independent of the accumulation of cholesterol in the aortic wall. However, we also found that the addition of the progestins influenced the estrogen-induced vasorelaxation (Figure 3), although by an unknown mechanism of action. Recently, in a study of precontracted rabbit jugular veins, EE, LNG, DSG and GSD were reported to induce relaxations in vessels with intact endothelium (Herkert et al., 2000). However, this area warrants further investigation.

      It is well known that cholesterol-fed rabbits show alterations in their lipoprotein metabolism that differ from the human situation (Haarbo et al., 1991; 1992). Combination of EE with a progestin in this study reflected the estrogenic effect. Furthermore, the three combined treatments lowered serum lipids and the atherogenic lipoprotein levels significantly and similarly to EE monotherapy. In contrast, treatment with a progestin alone did not affect these variables differently from the controls, in accordance with earlier findings (Haarbo et al., 1992). In women, OC frequently increases serum triglycerides (Gevers Leuven et al., 1990; Kuhl et al., 1990; Leuven et al., 1990; Lobo et al., 1996; Cheung et al., 1999).

      The dose of EE was selected to reflect serum concentrations of EE in peri-menopausal women taking OC. However, the duration of the present study was longer than in many previous studies (20 weeks). Among the animals receiving EE alone, 40% died after only ≥21 weeks of treatment, whereas animals given combined treatment did not die prematurely. This suggests that the accumulated estrogen dose may have been too high and/or the study too long, as also indicated by the safety variables of the EE-treated animals at week 30 (Table IV), but also that adding a progestin was able to negate this toxic effect. Progestins were used in equipotent doses (i.e. in combination with EE they inhibit endometrial stimulation equally in humans) relative to each other. The selected dose of the progestins (µg per kg body weight) was chosen based on previous experience (van der Vies and de Visser, 1983; Sulistiyani et al., 1995; Zandberg et al., 2001) and in-house studies (in Organon), but may be considered as high doses. All three OC formulations significantly decreased the concentration of the cytosolic ER concentration relative to controls, suggesting that these formulations affect the endometrium through a down-regulation of the cytosolic ER. Addition of a progestin in this study also down-regulated the ER although less than found for EE, and when combining EE with a progestin, the estrogen component dominated the ER regulation. It should, however, be emphasized that the lack of modifying effect of the progestins relative to the EE dose on the endometrium should not be taken as a lack of progestogenic effect, since the primary intention was to investigate the effect of these hormone combinations on atherosclerosis and arterial responsiveness.

      A type II statistical error is not likely to have occurred in our study. However, the accumulation of cholesterol (and amount of fatty streaks) in the EE group was significantly lower than that of the placebo animals. For a type II error to occur, the null hypothesis (that there was no difference in aortic accumulation of cholesterol between the EE and the placebo group) would not be true, and despite this, we would obtain a non-significant result, i.e. a ‘false negative’ result.

      In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in ovariectomized cholesterol-fed rabbits, the progestins investigated (LNG, DSG, or GSD) can be combined with EE without attenuating the anti-atherogenic effect of EE, partly by decreasing atherogenic lipoproteins, and partly by a direct effect on the endothelium, modulating the aortic vasomotor response in vitro.

      References
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      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and methods
      Results
      Discussion
      References

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      Sidney, S., Siscovick, D.S., Petitti, D.B., Schwartz, S.M., Quesenberry, C.P., Psaty, B.M., Raghunathan, T.E., Kelaghan, J. and Koepsell, T.D. (1998) Myocardial infarction and use of low-dose oral contraceptives: a pooled analysis of 2 US studies. Circulation, 98, 1058–1063.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

      Sulistiyani, Adelman, S.J., Chandrasekaran, A., Jayo, J. and St Clair, R.W. (1995) Effect of 17 alpha-dihydroequilin sulfate, a conjugated equine estrogen, and ethinylestradiol on atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 15, 837–846.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

      Tanis, B.C., van den Bosch, M.A., Kemmeren, J.M., Cats, V.M., Helmerhorst, F.M., Algra, A., van der Graaf, Y. and Rosendaal, F.R. (2001) Oral contraceptives and the risk of myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med., 345, 1787–1793.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

      Thorpe, S.M. (1987) Steroid receptors in breast cancer: sources of inter-laboratory variation in dextran-choarcoal assays. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 9, 175–189.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

      Thorpe, S.M., Lykkesfeldt, A.E., Vinterby, A. and Lonsdorfer, M. (1986) Quantitative immunological detection of estrogen receptors in nuclear pellets from human breast cancer biopsies. Cancer Res., 46, 4251S–4255S.[Medline]

      vanderVies, J. and de Visser, J. (1983) Endocrinological studies with desogestrel. Arzneimittelforschung, 33, 231–236.[Medline]

      World Health Organization (1997) Details?

      Zandberg, P., Peters, J.L.M., Demacker, P.N., de Reeder, E.G., Smit, M.J. and Meuleman, D.G. (2001) Comparison of the antiatherosclerotic effect of tibolone with that of estradiol and ethinyl estradiol in cholesterol-fed, ovariectomized rabbits. Menopause, 8, 96–105.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

      Submitted on December 13, 2002; resubmitted on February 20, 2003; accepted on March 25, 2003.

      This article has been cited by other articles:

      T. Hayashi, T. Esaki, D. Sumi, T. Mukherjee, A. Iguchi, and G. Chaudhuri
      Modulating role of estradiol on arginase II expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits as an atheroprotective mechanism
      PNAS, July 5, 2006; 103(27): 10485 - 10490.
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  13. QUESTION:
    Can you get a rash from Menopause?
    I am getting this rash that really itches all over my neck and chest. Can it be related to Menopause? Or maybe and allergic reaction to something?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Stephanie

      Here are a few ideas to heal the issue.

      Cause
      Although most rashes are not symptoms of a serious health problem, they can be signs of allergies, liver and gallbladder problems, lupus, bleeding disorders, nutritional deficiencies, and autoimmune diseases.

      Rashes can also be due to the elimination of toxic wastes through the skin, or of an active immune reaction to an invading organism. Suppression of such a rash can lead to chronic disease states. Rather than try to suppress the rash, in such cases watchful waiting may be more advisable.

      Caution: If your rash becomes chronic, forms a "butterfly" shape over your cheeks, or is accompanied by high fever and joint pains, seek immediate medical attention to rule out more serious illnesses.

      ------------------------------...

      Natural Cures

      Diet: Screen for and eliminate any foods to which you are allergic or sensitive. Eat an organic, whole foods diet, with plenty of green leafy vegetables and yellow vegetables such as carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, and winter squash. Also drink plenty of pure, filtered water, and avoid all processed foods and chemical food additives.

      Flower Essences: Rescue Remedy Cream® applied topically to the affected areas.

      Herbs: The following herbal remedies can speed healing: A tincture of equal parts burdock root and gentian root, the fresh juice of coriander, and/or aloe vera juice or gel.

      Homeopathy: Useful homeopathic remedies include Belladonna, Sulfur, Graphites, and Calc carb.

      Hydrotherapy: Hydrotherapy is the application of water, ice, steam and hot and cold temperatures to maintain and restore health. Treatments include full body immersion, steam baths, saunas, sitz baths, colonic irrigation and the application of hot and/or cold compresses. Hydrotherapy is effective for treating a wide range of conditions and can easily be used in the home as part of a self-care program. Many Naturopathic Physicians, Physical Therapists and Day Spas use Hydrotherapy as part of treatment.
      *Purified water is essential for any hydrotherapy treatment. Remedies for Treating Chlorinated Bath Water offers clear instructions and recommendations.

      Juice Therapy: Drink fresh squeezed vegetable juices on a daily basis, especially carrot, beet, radish, and garlic juice.

      Nutritional Supplementation: The following nutrients can be helpful to speed healing: vitamin A and vitamin E (both orally and applied topically over the affected areas), vitamin C, essential fatty acids (EFAs), flaxseed oil, and amma linolenic acid (GLA). In addition, add half a teaspoon of baking soda to water and drink every fifteen minutes. Do this three times, and then every two to three hours for two to three days or until the reaction subsides.

      Alternative Professional Care
      If your symptoms persist despite the above measures, seek the help of a qualified health professional. The following professional care therapies have all been shown to be useful for treating rashes: Acupuncture, Ayurveda, Detoxification Therapy, Naturopathic Medicine, Orthomolecular Medicine, Osteopathy, Oxygen Therapy (Hydrogen Peroxide), and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

      Best of health to you

  14. QUESTION:
    How do I make peppermint essence?
    I have this peppermint plant at home, I want to do something with it.

    • ANSWER:
      One new aspect of Alternative Medicine is to use the essential oils of plants to treat all sorts of human conditions from fevers to dandruff. I have used many of these treatments myself and my family and pets, and found that some work very well indeed. However, the plant essences used are VERY expensive. They are also so very concentrated they can not be used on the skin undiluted. Just to give you an idea of how strong they are the usual dilution is three drops to a tablespoon of oil or water before use.

      Soooooooooo, rather than buy many expensive distilled essences, and then extensively dilute them, you can make "user friendly" body oils right from the start. What you need are your fresh or dried herb of choice, a jar with a lid, and some cooking oil. With these simple household items you can make your own oils!

      BASIC DIRECTIONS:

      Materials:
      Pint Jar with Lid (recycle!!)
      Fresh Herbs to tightly fill the jar
      Salad Oil
      Sterilized knife blade

      Process:
      Wash and sterilize the jar and lid. Boiling them both, and letting them air dry will work fine.

      Chop fresh herbs to fill the jar. The chopped edge will release more essence to the oil. Pack into the jar. Heat the oil to 160 degrees F. Carefully pour into jar over the herbs. Swish the sterilized knife blade around to release any air bubbles. Cap the jar. Store away from light for a month or more. The essence will infuse the oil to exactly the right dilution for therapeutic use or to just jazz up a salad!

      Suggested Oils for Beginners:

      Peppermint Infused Oil:
      Pick peppermint and process according to directions. If you pick herbs in the wild please never
      take more than a quarter of the patch. You may wipe out next year’s bounty if you take more. Peppermint oil is good for sore muscles and for congestion due to colds and flu. Another use is to rub on one’s abdomen to cure a stomach ache or cramps.

      Sage Infused Oil:
      Pick fresh sage and process according to the above instructions. Sage is an antiseptic and also useful for menopause symptoms.

      Rosemary Infused Oil:
      Pick fresh rosemary sprigs or use one of the containers of dry rosemary you can purchase at the grocery. Infuse according to directions. If you use the dry herbs you need much less only a quarter the amount of fresh. Rosemary is great for scalp problems like dandruff, and also is wonderful mixed half and half with Peppermint Infused oil for a muscle rub.

      Rose Petal Infused Oil:
      Pick fresh rose petals after the dew has dried. Process as above. Great for skin care, and a super mood improver in the winter months!

      To gain more knowledge of Aromatherapy check out the book:
      COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS and AROMATHERAPY
      by Valarie Ann Wormwood (great name for a herbalist!!!)

      This text is so helpful and comprehensive I think every house should have one! It focuses on uses of commercial distilled essences, but your infused oils will work fine adapted to her recipes.

      Peppermint Creams are made nearly entirely of icing sugar and are easy to make. Their melt-in-the-mouth quality makes them a treat for anytime.

      Ingredients
      450g icing sugar (plus 50g extra just in case)
      1 tablespoon milk
      1/2-1 teaspoon peppermint essence
      food colouring (optional)

      Steps
      Sift the 450g of icing sugar into a bowl.
      Add in the milk and peppermint essence.
      Mix with your hands as you would for dough.
      If it has too much icing sugar, add some milk. If it is too runny, add icing sugar.
      When it reaches a thick enough texture, take it out of the bowl, and knead it on the on top of a table sprinkled in icing sugar.
      Dust the surface with icing sugar.
      Roll out the mixture till it is about half a centimetre thick.
      Cut out small shapes (circles are easiest), and put the on a tray which has also been dusted with icing sugar.
      Leave for about 10-15 mins then turn over.
      In 15 mins time -enjoy!

      Tips
      If you want solid colour-add the colouring after the peppermint essence. However, for a marbled effect-add in just before you knead the mixture.
      Add in decorations as you put them on the tray-before they start to harden.
      For people who dont quite like peppermint, you could use other flavourings.
      Blue and green work best.

  15. QUESTION:
    Which natural product is working for hot flashes?
    I lost my left ovary to cancer couple of years ago. I wake up so often during the night and it's hard to go back to sleep again. I am against prescription drug which doctor would give me.

    Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      There is two ways to go in the treatment of hot flushes. Allopathic or Naturopathic.

      As hot flashes are the main symptom of menopause, the favorite treatment by your treating doctor will be the Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). On the other hand, the use of herbs for hot flashes is more of alternative way. The basic are herbs such as the Licorice root, Panax ginseng, Black Cohosh and Wild yams. In lite cases, one can experiment with the combination of those.

      If the case of your problem is more deeply seated, then the use of special mixes is the right way to go.

      Out of those, the best ones (in my opinion) are: Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma Longifolia), Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pothoina) and Akar Serapat (Paramignya Polyne) mix.

      Or...
      Shu Di Huang, the steamed and dried form of Sheng Di Huang which does tonify the blood with hot flashes, night sweats, dizziness, pale complexion, palpitations, nocturnal emissions, insomnia, irregular menses, uterine bleeding and post partum bleeding. It also does foster Yin – kidney Yin deficiency with constant thirst, steaming bone disorder, tinnitus, premature graying.

      Or...
      Sheng Di Huang as one of herbs for hot flashes, Sheng Di Huang is mainly used to clear the heat, cool the blood and foster Yin for production of body fluid.
      Sheng Di Huang is used for high fever, constant thirst, red tongue, bleeding due to excessive heat in the blood and promote body fluids. Sheng Di Huang is used for Yin deficiency with damage of body fluids by excessive heat, symptoms such as mouth dryness, low fever, constipation, throat pain.
      Also is used for sores in mouth and tongue, irritability, insomnia and malar flush.

      One supporting factor is also the Wu Wei Zi which is mainly used as an astringent preparation to decrease perspiration, benefit kidney to calm heart and benefit Qi to produce fluid.

      Now you have the information but the footwork must be done by you.
      As each of us is an individual, we do respond differently to even the best medication in the world.

      The only way now is the trial and error. To be under the supervision of experienced Naturopath wouldn't hurt you either.

  16. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know a drug for women similar to salt peter for males?
    I mean its not fair, we get older, we get hormone fluxuations, and I like to get drunk on occasion, I dont want to be an aging beer slut. Is there anything for women to take?

    • ANSWER:
      Sex Rx for Women

      If you're a woman with a low sex drive, you're probably asking, "Where's my pill?" The short answer is, don't hold your breath—but don't give up hope, either. The most promising treatments:

      >Viagra The Viagra-for-women idea isn't new: Irwin Goldstein, M.D., director of the Institute for Sexual Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine, found it enhanced clitoral blood flow in rabbits way back in 1998. More recently, a study in the European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology found that women treated with Viagra for four weeks reported marked improvement in arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment (side effects were similar to those reported in men). So why aren't women hoarding their partners' pills?

      "Drugs for erectile dysfunction work well for many men because they typically want to have sex but can't," Goldstein explains. "For women there's often a different problem: In many cases what's missing is the desire." A woman's sexuality is more complicated than a man's—big surprise there—which means that boosting desire may require something other than improving circulation. For women, Viagra will likely have a better success rate for lubrication problems than libido problems, since these are less about blood flow and more about hormones and psychology.

      >Estrogen Therapy It's well known that estrogen shortages can lower libido and trigger such problems as vaginal dryness. Events such as childbirth, hysterectomy, and menopause can all cause imbalances, but so can drugs like antidepressants and, ironically, birth control pills. If eliminating problematic prescriptions doesn't correct estrogen imbalances, a woman may need estrogen replacement. For women who've been rattled by the recent controversy over estrogen pills and patches, alternatives include locally applied creams like Premarin and Estrace, and vaginally inserted drugs like Estring and Vagifem.

      >Androgen Therapy Estrogen imbalance isn't even half the problem, explains Goldstein. "There are 10 sex steroids in all, and only three are estrogens; the other seven are androgens, which most people think of as the male sex hormones. We're finding that three out of four women who see us for lack of desire have serious androgen shortages."

      Therapy typically focuses on upping female levels of testosterone. For women, topical formulations are the most common delivery method. Creams have been marketed for men for years, but gels such as Testim and AndroGel get top marks from Goldstein. The big reason: They're more effective and much easier to use. Androgens are also available in pill form—one product, Estratest, combines a type of testosterone with estrogen—but the most exciting news may be the buzz about dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a chemical cousin of estrogen and testosterone. Goldstein's research has found that women who take DHEA show substantial improvements in their self-evaluated sexual performance—though he's quick to warn that women shouldn't take it on their own. "It's sold as a supplement, but DHEA is a drug, and we don't totally understand it yet," explains Goldstein. While side effects of topical and oral testosterone therapy can include weight gain, clitoral enlargement, and unwanted hair growth, DHEA use has been linked to even scarier problems including birth defects and cancer.

      >Talking Cure A wide range of psychological factors, including depression, anxiety, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and an array of interpersonal relationship problems, can drain a woman's interest in sex. "While we never want to say that problems with sex are all in someone's head, the psychological factors are undeniable and may even be more profound in women than they are in men," says Goldstein. That's the reason all of his patients consult with a psychologist as well as a physician—and why anyone who's not enjoying sex should, too.

      >Bottom Line Women may eventually have as many drugs to choose from as their pill-popping partners. But before there's a cure, there has to be research. Think of it as pharmaceutical foreplay. "The really effective medications for men were developed once we understood the physiology of male erections," explains Goldstein. "We won't have a similar answer for women until we have that same understanding of female physiology."

      Melissa Gotthardt is a regular contributor to AARP The Magazine.

  17. QUESTION:
    I want to start taking prenatal vitamins for my skin?
    I break out like a freak, im a girl and i love makeup and having acne just ruins alot! I have a mild cleanser and drink alot of water and clean my hands and im still breaking out!!!

    please help i hear prenatal vitamins can help, what brand should i take? personal experience? someone help!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Women can break out because of puberty or periodical menstrual cycle that can last until menopause. These phases makes your hormone out of whack --> hyperactive oil glands --> more oil --> more acne. Prenatal vitamins does not help. If you prefer an oral route for acne, your relevant choices are: antibiotic (like tetracycline) OR hormone blocker OR birth control pills OR accutane (isotretinoin). Birth control ill and hormone blocker regulate hormone production ---> less oil --> less breakouts. Isotretinoin shrinks oil glands --> no more oily skin --> no more blackheads or acne. I think isotretinoin gives you long-term or even permanent "normal" skin after the treatment, but some people need 2 or 3 trials.

      -- Cleansers – removes dirty, oil, makeup, dead skin cells and any other residuals built up over time

      Boots Expert Anti-Blemish Cleansing Foam OR Olay Foaming Face Wash, Sensitive OR CeraVe Foaming Cleanser is great options. All three contain no fragrance or colorant (nFoC).

      -- Exfoliant – Unglues dead skin cell | stimulate collagen over time | even out skin tone

      Neutrogena Oil-Free Acne Stress Control 3-in-1 Hydrating Acne Treatment with 2% salicylic acid (SA; pH ~ 3.4). This product does contain fragrance and coloring additives, but they are in minute amounts. If you have sensitivity to those ingredients, then try Paula’s Choice 2% beta hydroxy acid “gel” or “liquid” version (pH 3.2-6); either one is good. SA acts as a triple threat: an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and an oil-soluble exfoliant. Its solubility allows it to exfoliate the pore lining to dislodge any clog to permit a better flow of oil. If you are allergic to aspirin, then avoid SA. Your alternative is a glycolic acid or lactic acid-based product such as Paula’s Choice 8% Alpha Hydrox Acid with glycolic acid (pH f 3.5-8) with nFoC. If you have sensitivity to any acids, you probably want to stick with a physical scrub such as Neutrogena Fresh Foaming Scrub with round polyethylene beads as the scrubbing agent. The efficacy of exfoliation of scrubs is not on par with chemical exfoliation. But before you go for the scrub, try ease up the application of chemical exfoliant if you have low tolerance for it at first. For example, try to apply it every other night, or every third night, or once a week and gradually increase application frequency. Or, you can apply the chemical exfoliant for 5-10 minutes and rinse it off; do this for a week and increase leave-on application as you achieve higher tolerance for the acid.

      -- Acne Medication – oxidizing agent that destroy acne bacteria

      Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is the gold-standard acne treatment. The FDA and declared it to be safe and effective. Acne bacteria cannot develop resistance to benzoyl peroxide. Research has shown that a 2.5% BP is just as effective as 5% or 10% BP without the irritation (peeling, burning, redness, etc). However, if your skin has a more aggressive form of acne, you may just want to try a higher concentration of BP. If you prefer an organized system that takes the guess work out for you, then try Proactiv. Acne.org also offers a system and it is cheaper because you get for product per dollar. The drugstore has a few good options. Oxy Clinical Clearing Treatment has 5% BP while Clean and Clear Persa-Gel contain 10% BP. If you have sensitive to BP, an alternative may be sulfur-containing product such as Clearasil Adult Acne Treatment Cream, Tinted with 8% sulfur and 2% resorcinol; however, this product can be “strong” so do a patch test to be on the safe side. If you have tolerance issue, try the methods I proposed above in the exfoliant section. You can try tea tree oil too, but I cannot find a product anywhere on the market (as of now) of the appropriate concentration to work effective and gently, that is, 2.5% or 5% tea tree oil. You can buy tea tree oil yourself and try to make it yourself at your own risk. Research has shown that benzoyl peroxide works better than tea tree oil.

      -- Sunscreen – UV protection

      Sunscreen is absolutely important for any skin type. Sun UV-rays are detrimental to the health of your skin. UVB is the burning ray whereas UV-A is the aging ray. Neutrogena Age Shield SPF 55 has nFoC. If you are very oil, then try Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Liquid Sunblock SPF 55 (low amount of fragrance); its liquid consistency and mineral silica leave a matte finish. The duration of the matte effect depends how active your oil glands are, so you may want to blot throughout the day ( a tissue paper is just fine). If you have sensitivity to synthetic sunscreen agent, then your alternative has to be sun product with just titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide. They provide board-spectrum product with high safety profile and almost no irritation potential because of their inert nature. Neutrogena Pure & Free Liquid Sunblock SPF 50 with 5% titanium dioxide and 3% zinc oxide has nFoC.

      Best wishes.

  18. QUESTION:
    What is my teacher going tO have surgery on?
    She is around 60 or so and she is going to be having surgery next week. We have boys in our class so she said it is a female thing. Well I am a girl and I don't know what she is having surgery on! Please help!:)

    • ANSWER:
      She could be having a hysterectomy-the surgical removal of the uterus, usually performed by a gynecologist. Hysterectomy may be total (removing the body, fundus, and cervix of the uterus; often called "complete") or partial (removal of the uterine body while leaving the cervix intact; also called "supracervical"). It is the most commonly performed gynecological surgical procedure. In 2003, over 600,000 hysterectomies were performed in the United States alone, of which over 90% were performed for benign conditions. Such rates being highest in the industrialized world has led to the major controversy that hysterectomies are being largely performed for unwarranted and unnecessary reasons.

      Removal of the uterus renders the patient unable to bear children (as does removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes) and has surgical risks as well as long-term effects, so the surgery is normally recommended when other treatment options are not available. It is expected that the frequency of hysterectomies for non-malignant indications will fall as there are good alternatives in many cases.

      Oophorectomy (removal of ovaries) is frequently done together with hysterectomy to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer. However, recent studies have shown that prophylactic oophorectomy without an urgent medical indication decreases a woman's long-term survival rates substantially and has other serious adverse effects, particularly in terms of inducing early-onset-osteoporosis through removal of the major sources of female hormonal production. This effect is not limited to pre-menopausal women; even women who have already entered menopause were shown to have experienced a decrease in long-term survivability post-oophorectomy.

      Or a breast reduction...

  19. QUESTION:
    Has anyone used bio-identical hormones to treat menopause?
    I found some affordable ones online at www.AgelessApple.com and supposedly they're safer than regular hormone regimines. Does anybody know anything about them?

    • ANSWER:
      I was reading through some articles about the menopause and I noticed that some people have a very positive attitude towards this difficult time of life for women.  I read that the menopause should not be regarded as an illness or a disease. It is simply an occurrence wherein the woman is entering her second phase of feminine life.
      Of course, these women are experiencing a gradual discomfort because of the transition...this is only natural. If there are telltale signs of menopause symptoms, you can opt to procure some treatment in order to minimize the feeling of discomfort. But it is important to remember that any kind of treatment will not prevent you from undergoing menopause process, especially when your age is already falling from and between 48 - 55 years old.
      It will only help you to deal a lot easier with menopause symptoms or relieve the  majority of their major discomfort effects. Your lifestyle might also need some changing especially your smoking, eating, drinking, and sleeping habits in order to minimize the severity of menopause symptoms.
      What can herbs do to treat menopause symptoms?
      There are many types of reliable herbs available that can treat menopause symptoms. They can maintain women's healthy life even when menstruation process causes a lot of discomfort and decline in their health aspect. With herbs carefully and religiously applied you may not only alleviate those various forms of discomfort but you will also maintain your healthy life. Two basic types of herbs for menopause Phytoestrogenic herbs These are the herbs or plants that contain natural phytoestrogen, a type of chemical compound, which is similar to the women body estrogen. These herbs work by replacing the lost natural body estrogen with the plant hormones, phytoestrogen. Aside from this, there are other elements of phytoestrogenic herbs that are considered beneficial to menopausal women such as amino acids, vitamins and minerals.
      Generally, these herbs are an alternative to disorders relating to low hormonal/estrogen levels. Most popular phytoestrogenic herbs: Ginseng. Used to improve your overall vitality and energy, this is a dried root from one of the Araliaceae herb species. Ginkgo. Used to enhance memory, prevent memory-related diseases such as Dementia, Alzheimer's and others. This herb is one of the oldest herbal medicines used in China. Dong Quai. Most effective in treating gynecological complaints caused by the change in hormonal production. Red Clover. Diseases treated are skin disorders and bronchitis, asthma and spasmodic coughing. Black Cohosh. Symptoms treated include depression, night sweats and hot flashes. Non-estrogenic herbs In contrast with the phytoestrogenic plants, non-estrogenic herbs, as the name suggests, are those plants that do not produce estrogen chemical structures.
      These plants are widely recognized by the doctors and medical experts because of their effectiveness to relieve women's menopause symptoms. Furthermore, they are considered completely safe and do not provide side effects. The right non-estrogenic herbs contain nutrients that can nourish endocrine system, eventually balancing your hormonal levels. With the proper application, occurrences of the loss of hormones will be reduced as they can promote your body to naturally produce the needed healthy level of estrogen hormones, without the distracting side effects. Specifically, non-estrogenic herbs will provide relief to the following disorders relating to menopause symptoms: - majority of the menopause symptoms - hormonal imbalance - osteoporosis or bone mass loss - infertility - sexual intercourse problems - cardiovascular disease It is important to note, however, that even these herbs are a natural treatment you need to research on the kind of plant that you are going to take as not all of these will relieve and alleviate you from those menopause symptoms.
      There are herbal plants that can cause many other side effects, may it be minor or major. It has been written that Menozac has been developed as a natural alternative support, formulated with the best-known combination of well-researched phytoestrogen botanicals.   These plants have a long history of helping to relieve menopausal symptoms and supporting the body's hormonal balance and a natural alternative to HRT.

  20. QUESTION:
    Question about various kinds of hysterectomies?
    When does the doctor feel that you should have one of the following?

    Abdominal hysterectomy
    Vaginal hysterectomy
    Laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Please don’t give me the definitions of each since I have already researched them. What I want to know is under what circumstance does the doctor suggest one or the other?

    Thank you.
    Oh, I am asking this from the point of view of someone who has fibroids.

    • ANSWER:
      I had a Laproscopic Vaginal Hysterectomy last year. My uterus swelled from having Endometriosis and Adenomyosis at the same time and it looked like I was 4 months pregnant!! Even though I was swollen it was best for me to have the vaginal procedure so he could take it out in pieces and I already had 4 c-sections in my past so it wasn't advisable to create another incision. There is less recovery time from the vaginal procedure. I was miserable and my hormones and monthly cycle was so out of whack I was having 2 periods in a month and sometimes skipped a month.My doctor didn't recommend the surgery till I researched it for myself and what alternatives are available. I wanted the surgery since my research showed that with Adenomyosis there is no curable treatment unless you have a hysterectomy. I was already done with childbearing so I had no reason to hold onto it. I opted to keep my ovaries since I'm only 37 and don't want to be forced into premature menopause.Hope this info helped.

  21. QUESTION:
    What can you use for only vagina itching?
    Has no odor , no discharge .
    on outside of vagina area.

    • ANSWER:
      Vaginal itching
      Overview
      Treatment
      Alternative Names:
      Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching
      Home Care:
      To prevent and treat vaginal itching:

      Keep your genital area clean and dry. Use plain, unscented soap.
      Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath.
      Wear cotton panties or pantyhose with a cotton crotch. Avoid panties made from synthetic materials. For infants and toddlers, change diapers often.
      Change out of wet clothing, especially wet bathing suits or exercise clothing, as soon as possible.
      Avoid feminine hygiene sprays and douches.
      Eat yogurt with live cultures or take lactobacillus acidophilus tablets when using antibiotics. Check with your doctor.
      Cleanse by wiping or washing from front to back (vagina to anus) after urinating or having a bowel movement.
      Lose weight if you are over weight.
      Keep your blood sugars under good control if you have diabetes.
      It is also helpful to:

      Avoid scratching, which will only aggravate the problem.
      Avoid overexertion, heat, and excessive sweating.
      Delay sexual activity until your symptoms get better or at least use a lubricant during intercourse.
      Use condoms to avoid catching or spreading sexually transmitted diseases.
      If you know that you have a yeast infection because your symptoms are exactly the same as those in the past, try over-the-counter creams or vaginal suppositories.

      Yeast infections are not considered sexually transmitted. However, sometimes men also develop itching and redness following sexual contact. If this is the case or you get recurrent infections for unclear reasons, both you and your partner may require treatment. Talk to your doctor.

      For itching related to menopause, your doctor may consider estrogen cream or tablets to insert vaginally.

      Teach children to resist and report any attempted sexual contact by another person. Don't try to remove any foreign object from a child's vagina. Take the child to a doctor right away for removal.

      Call your health care provider if:
      Call your doctor right away if:

      You have pelvic or lower abdominal pain or fever.
      You have increased thirst or appetite, unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, or fatigue -- these may be signs of diabetes.
      Call your doctor if:

      Your symptoms worsen, last longer than 1 week, or recur despite self-care.
      You have unusual vaginal bleeding , swelling, or discharge .
      Your partner also has symptoms or you think you may have a sexually transmitted disease.
      You have burning with urination or other urinary symptoms -- you may have a urinary tract infection.
      You have blisters or ulcers on your vagina or vulva.
      What to expect at your health care provider's office:
      Your doctor will exam you, including a pelvic exam, and ask questions to help diagnose the cause of your vaginal itching. These questions may include:

      When did the itching begin?
      Have you had it before?
      Is the itching severe?
      Does it limit your activities?
      Where exactly is the itching? On the inside of the vagina or on the outside (vulva) as well?
      How often do you bathe or shower?
      Do you use scented soap, scented or colored toilet paper, or bubble bath?
      Do you frequently swim or participate in water sports? Do you change your clothes soon after such activities?
      Do you wear cotton panties or synthetic ones?
      Do you wear tight pants or tight pantyhose?
      Do you use douches or feminine hygiene spray?
      Are you sexually active? Do you use contraception? What type?
      Does anything make you feel better?
      Does anything make you feel worse?
      Have you tried any over-the-counter creams? Which ones?
      Do you have any other symptoms like vaginal bleeding, swelling, rash, or pain on urination ?
      Do you have a personal or family history of diabetes?
      What medications do you take?
      What is your menstrual history? Including questions like: How old were you when your periods began? How often do your periods usually come? How long do they generally last?
      Do you have any allergies?

      Diagnostic tests that may be performed include:

      Culture and microscopic exam of vaginal discharge
      Pap smear
      Urine and blood studies (including hormone levels)
      Skin biopsies of the vulvar area
      Antifungal drugs may be prescribed for yeast infections. When indicated, steroid creams or lotions may be prescribed to reduce inflammation. Ointments containing hormones may be ordered, and benzodiazepines or antihistamines may be prescribed for nighttime relief.

      Antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial vaginal infections, including sexually transmitted diseases.

      References:
      Clark LR, Atendido M. Group B streptococcal vaginitis in postpubertal adolescent girls. J Adolesc Health . 2005; 36(5): 437-440.

      Edwards L. The diagnosis and treatment of infectious vaginitis. Dermatol Ther . 2004; 17(1): 102-110.

      Reid G, Bruce AW. Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help? Postgrad Med J . 2003; 79(934): 428-432.z

  22. QUESTION:
    What other methods can you use besides taking birth control pills since studies show the pill bc is?
    causing cancer. Or is their a bc method that is safe

    • ANSWER:
      Congrats for taking charge of your own health!

      All hormonal birth control methods have the same cancer risk as bc pills. Hormonal methods include The Pill, The Mini-Pill, The Patch, some types of IUDs, Nuva Ring, Depo Shots, and Nor-Plant. They all administer the same hormones by different delivery methods. Hormone levels in HRT are actually lower than levels found in hormonal birth control methods. Consider that on top of the fact that hormonal birth control methods are used by young healthy women with already normal levels of naturally occurring hormones. They’re getting MASSIVE dosages, even with the more modern low-dose pills being used.

      NOW TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTION
      If you must practice birth control and cannot try abstinence; condoms, contraceptive sponges, diaphragms, or cervical caps used correctly with plenty of spermicide gel or foam, are STATISTICALLY JUST AS EFFECTIVE as hormonal birth control. Condoms also decrease your chances of contracting an STD and they don't work by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg, like hormonal birth control does. If you are pro-life and believe that life begins at conception, this last point should be of particular interest to you. Abortifacient types of birth control also include non-hormonal types of IUDs, which work exclusively by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg…they don’t even ATTEMPT to stop ovulation and subsequent fertilization…and they can cause uterine perforations and other complications. Even if you DON’T have any moral objection to the abortifacient birth control methods, at least stop using hormonal birth control and IUDs for the sake of your own health!

      Here are a few links if you'd like to learn more about the Big Announcement on Friday December 15th that, WITHOUT A DOUBT, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) causes breast cancer. Since the time when women were discouraged from taking HRT back in 2001-2002, breast cancer rates have sharply dropped by an unprecedented 7%! In the scientific community, this is a bombshell proof positive of the connection. Note that breast cancer rates originally started increasing rapidly when birth control pills and now other forms of hormonal birth control began to be widely used. Hormonal birth control methods contain the SAME hormones that are also the most widely used in HRT (estrogen and progestin).

      How long will we have to wait before the medical community admits to women that hormonal birth control methods are just as dangerous as HRT? I have a feeling that it will be much longer, as hormonal birth control is considered to be the "holy grail" of "women's reproductive freedom". Never mind that women are dying of breast cancer at alarmingly increasing rates since 1974, around the time when landmark cases were decided and BC pills began to be more widely used. Thirty years later, we are reaping the "benefits" of artificial hormones that are used to suppress and tinker with the natural processes of the female body.

      The female bodily functions of ovulation, pregnancy and menopause ARE NOT ILLNESSES. Medications should only be taken when it's absolutely necessary to prevent or cure ILLNESS, and then ONLY if the benefit outweighs the risks. If you have a medical condition that your doctor wants to treat with hormones, make sure to do YOUR research and challenge his or her opinion. Get a second or even a third opinion. Explore alternative treatments. Doctors are not infallible and in the end, only YOU can determine the best course of action with regard to your health. Only after you’ve exhausted your other options, if it is apparent that hormones are the only treatment that makes sense, then by all means, DO IT.

      HOW HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND HORMONAL BIRTH CONTROL METHODS HAVE NOW DEFINITELY BEEN SHOWN TO CAUSE CANCER
      http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1025191125.html
      http://www.cnn.com/2006/HEALTH/12/15/gupta.breast.cancer/
      HOW SOME TYPES OF BIRTH CONTROL CAN CAUSE ABORTION WITHOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE, ALONG WITH INFORMATION ABOUT NON-HORMONAL BARRIER BIRTH CONTROL METHODS THAT ARE JUST AS EFFECTIVE
      http://abort73.com/HTML/II-D-2-types.html

  23. QUESTION:
    Is there any known cases of a person being cured of rheumatoid arthritis?
    Alternative medicine?

    • ANSWER:
      HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT FOR ARTHRITIS without any side effects or complications of any sort, (Arthritis including Gout, Arthritis Deformans/Osteoarthritis and Rheumatism). 100% Cure when prescribed exactly according to the patients symptoms :-

      Pain knee joints, worse by movements; better initial movements, continuous pain in joints, worse while rising from seat; pain in heels, worse by movements. Cassia Sophera 30X, 4 hourly

      Acute attack of gout of joints of the feet.Pain with bright red swelling Aconite Nap 200, 2 hourly

      Pain with inflammation, worse by movements. Bryonia Alba 200 or 1M, 6 hourly

      Complaints worse after rest and exposure to cold Rhus tox 200 or 1M, 4 hourly

      Complaints worse during menstruation; beginning at the time of menopause; more in hands and feet Caulophyllum 30X, 4 hourly

      When the origin of complaints is gonorrhoeal; worse during day time. Medorrhinum 1M. fortnightly (3 Doses)

      When the origin of complaints is tubercular Tuberculinum k, 1M fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of small joints with red or pale swelling; tenderness and shifting pains; worse by motion. Main remedy for gout during cold weather Colchicum 30X, 4 hourly

      When Rhus Tox cease to work; pain is worse in cold damp weather and better by movements Calcarea Carb 200 or 1M, 6 hourly (6 Doses)

      Nodosities in the joints with gastric complaints. At last nodules become painless (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Tongue whitish thickly coated Antim Crud 30X or 200, 6 hourly

      Complaints of feets and ankles; stiffness Drosera 200 fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of long bones; contraction of ligaments Causticum 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain worse at night; in wet weather; Rheumatism of large muscles Cimicifuga 30X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism; worse in damp cold weather. Gout.Pain in limbs and hip joints Natrum Sulph 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain travels downwards affecting the large part of a limb and passes through quickly along course of nerve Kalmia Lat 30X or 200, 6 hourly

      Pains worse during rest, night and warmth, better by cold, open air and movements Pulsatilla 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain :- violent; bruised or as if sprained ; cannot bear touch, feels somebody coming near him may touch him and hit the affected part Arnica Montana 200, 4 hourly

      Gout of great toe and joints with swelling; soreness and drawing pain on stepping; worse in warmth, pressure and motion. Pain travels upwards; better cold compresses Ledum Pal 200, 4 hourly

      Gouty nodosities of joints; tearing pain and extremities and contraction of the muscles Guaiacum 30 4 hourly

      Chronic nodosities of joints; hands twisted, out of shape due to deposits of water of soda Ammonium Phos 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      Gouty complaints with offensive urine Acid Benzoic 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      When there is red sand in urine in gouty patients Lycopodium 30, 4 hourly

      Severe pain with enlargement of the joints; worse during rest and when storm approaches Rhododendron 200 or 1M, 10 min (3 Doses)

      Almost a specific for gout (to drain out uric acid and urates) Urtica Urens Q(Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8 -10 drops in hot water

      Arthritic deformans (chronic rheumatoid, particularly of fingers) Picric Acid 30X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pains or arthritis after checked diarrhoea Abrotanum 30 or 200 4 hourly (6 Doses)

      Specific for pain with numbness; Pain so severe patient says that he would prefer death than the pain Chamomilla 200 or 1M, 1/2 hourly (3 Doses)

      Pain appear diagonally as right arm and left leg with sensation of cold, numbness and tingling Agaricus Mus 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      In weak persons; burning pain with chilliness, feels better by heat, while eating, and worse in cold open air Capsicum 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Unbearable pain; rigidity and stiffness. Superiority / inferiority complex Platina 1M, weekly (3 Doses)

      Pain flies like electric shock; due to exposurse of damp cold weather. Better by warmth and rest Phytolacca 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pain, worse after washing clothes, doing laundry work Sepia 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain in long bones; may be due to injury or rheumatism Ruta Grav 200, 6 hourly

      Pain worse on slightest touch specially after loss of vital fluids like excessive bleeding, diarrhoea, vomiting China Off 6X or 30, 3 hourly

      Pain in the small joints of extremities with swelling. Backache, worse in the morning before rising Staphysagria 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain heels; better by putting most of the weight on them Berberis Vulgaris Q (Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8 - 10 drops

      Stiffing pain in all parts of the body; worse by movement Stellaria Q(Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8-10 drops in warm water

      Rheumatic pain without swelling; pain joints; worse at night Iodium 30X, 4 hourly

      Osteo-arthritis of large joints with degeneration. Pain, swelling, stiffness and tenderness of joints; worse by motion (cracking joints) and cold ; better by warmth O.A.Nosode 1M, weekly (6 Doses)

      Chronic muscular rheumatism of back and neck. Intense pain along with sciatic nerve. Numbness alternates with pain Gnaphalium 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Muscular atrophy; rigidity and stiffness Strychninum 3X or 6X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism accompained with skin ailments and itiching; cannot walk erect Sulphur 200, 10 min (3 Doses)

      Rheumatism of knee joint; with round worms Natrum Phos 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      For defective bony growth; better by warmth and worse by cold Calcarea Flour 12X or 30, 4 hourly

      Take the remedy which is similar to your symptoms.
      No side effects or complications if taken as directed, please do not exceed the given dosage and under any circumstances do not try to mix any remedies and avoid Chocolates, Mints, Coffee, Red Meat, Alcoholic and Carbonated drinks, Spicy Rich Food while taking any Homeopathic remedies, and keep the medicines away from direct sunlight, heat strong smells and perfumes and do not store them in the fridge.
      Curing without any side effects or Complications Thats the Beauty of Homeopathic Medicine. Cures Par Excellence.

      Take Care and God Bless you.

  24. QUESTION:
    Alternative remedies for menstrual migraines?
    Is it ok to take 'agnus cactus' along with 'starflower oil capsules' which are both recommended for menstrual migraines and PMS? Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Hormones Headaches/Menstrual Migraines

      It has been estimated that 70 percent of migraine sufferers are female. Of these female migraine sufferers, 60 to 70 percent report a menstrual relationship to their migraine attacks.

      What is the relationship between hormones and headaches?
      Headaches in women, particularly migraines, have been related to changes in the levels of estrogen during a woman’s menstrual cycle. (Estrogen is a female hormone.) Levels of estrogen drop immediately before the start of the menstrual flow (menses).

      Premenstrual migraines regularly occur during or after the time when the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, decrease to their lowest levels.

      Migraine attacks typically disappear during pregnancy. In one study, 64 percent of women who described a menstrual link to their headaches noted that their headaches disappeared during pregnancy. However, some women have reported the initial onset of migraines during the first trimester of pregnancy, with disappearance of their headaches after the third month of pregnancy.

      What triggers migraines in women?
      Birth control pills, as well as hormone replacement therapy for menopause, can change the frequency or severity of headaches. If you notice your headache getting worse after starting one of these medications, it may be worthwhile to ask your physician for an agent that contains a lower dose of estrogen, or request a change from an interrupted dosing regimen to a continuous one.

      What are the treatment options for menstrual migraine?
      The medications of choice in the treatment of menstrual migraine are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs).

      The NSAIDS most often used for menstrual migraine include:

      Ketoprofen (Orudis)
      Ibuprofen (Advil and Motrin)
      Fenoprofen calcium (Nalfon)
      Naproxen (Naprosyn)
      Nabumetone (Relafen)
      Therapy with the NSAID should be started two to three days before the onset of the menstrual flow and continued through the flow. Because the therapy is of short duration, the risk of gastrointestinal side effects is limited.

      Other medications prescribed include:

      Small doses of ergotamine (including Bellergal-S) or a similar compound, methylergonovine maleate (for example, Methergine)
      Beta blocker drugs such as propranolol
      Anticonvulsants such as valporate
      Calcium channel blockers such as veraperamil
      These drugs should also be started two to three days pre-menses and continued throughout the menstrual flow.

      Because fluid retention is often associated with menses, diuretics have been used to prevent menstrual migraine. Some physicians may recommend that the patient follow a salt-restricted diet immediately before the start of menses.

      Lupron is a medication that affects hormone levels and is used only when all other treatment methods have been tried and have been unsuccessful.

      What are the treatment options for menopausal migraine?
      For patients who need to continue post-menopausal estrogen supplements, the patient should be started on the lowest dose of these agents, on an uninterrupted basis. Instead of seven days off the drug, the patient should take it on a daily basis. By maintaining a steady dose of estrogen, the headaches may be prevented. An estrogen patch (such as Estraderm) may be effective in stabilizing the levels of estrogen.

      What are the treatment options for migraine during pregnancy?
      During pregnancy, no treatment is recommended to treat migraines. Medication therapy used to treat migraines can affect the uterus and can cross the placenta and affect the baby, so these medications should be strictly avoided..

      A mild analgesic can be used for pain, such as acetaminophen. It is imperative that pregnant women suffering from headaches discuss the safety of headache medications with their obstetricians and headache specialists.

      This is for information only, It is important that you consult your professional healthcare provider to make sensible diagnosis and treatment decisions

  25. QUESTION:
    Why does my breasts hurt so bad before I get my period?
    I mean they hurt sooooooo bad!!!! I cannot even touch them!! Why do they hurt, and feel big, and full....Ima 36B. I just want to get a full body massage now lol

    • ANSWER:
      Breast tenderness can be explained as pain, soreness or any discomfort in the breasts. Also, breast tenderness is generally associated with swelling.

      A certain degree of breast tenderness is normal during menstruation periods, pregnancy and breast-feeding. It is slightly noticeable, little uncomfortable, but this symptom stabilize after those periods end. However, most women will suffer severe breast tenderness when approaching menopause (this includes during and after it).
      Breast tenderness during menstruation periods can be caused by a combination of various factors. This is why women should know them in detail to be aware on how to face breast tenderness. Please read the following articles which explain the different causes for breast tenderness during menstruation periods.

      What Causes Breast tenderness during Menstruation Periods?

      Breast tenderness during menstruation periods can be caused by various factors. Most of the cases, unbalanced level of estrogen hormones is the main cause for breast tenderness during menstruation periods.

      The most common cause for breast tenderness during menstruation periods is hormonal imbalance. During the menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone levels vary in different ways. Normally, when estrogen is down and progesterone is up, breasts get bigger in size. But, hormonal imbalance could alter this cycle, making breasts even bigger, more susceptible to pain, and for more prolonged periods. Therefore, when hormones are not balanced and estrogen levels decrease more than progesterone ones, it ends in breast tenderness.

      Because the most common cause for breast tenderness during menstruation periods is unbalanced amounts of estrogen hormone, maintaining healthy hormone levels is important to avoid this symptom. Take a look at the following articles, which explain the steps to take for controlling breast tenderness during menstruation periods.

      What to do about Breast tenderness during Menstruation Periods?

      As hormonal imbalance is the most probable cause for breast tenderness during menstruation periods, the first step is to ensure your body has the support it needs to maintain good hormonal levels. The best way to go should be to start with a healthy nutrition and maybe follow a hormonal imbalance treatment such as alternative medicine.
      Healthy nutrition implies changes in lifestyle. It's always recommended to be complemented with an exercise program too. In fact, these may not be enough nor easy to accomplish. However, doctors think that healthy lifestyle complemented with a natural treatment like alternative medicine is excellent for treating breast tenderness during menstruation periods.

      As breast tenderness during menstruation periods is mainly caused by imbalanced hormonal levels, maintaining healthy amounts of hormones in your body is the most important thing. There are several ways to manage breast tenderness during

      Healthy life prevents breast tenderness during menstruation periods menstruation periods, but a safe and efficient way is by combining therapies such as "lifestyle approaches" and alternative medicine.

      You can click on the link in the article below to learn more about the treatment for breast tenderness during menstruation periods that most fits you.

  26. QUESTION:
    Is there a relation between Parkinson's disease and brain hemorrhage?
    Can someone who has suffered brain or cerebral hemorrhage develop Parkinson's disease?
    Please I really need to know.....

    • ANSWER:
      Viewing the brain hemorrhage as a severe trauma, the answer is yes, there is a greater possibility of developing Parkinson's disease than if that trauma had not occurred. However, that sort of trauma should not see the development of PD until at least 10-20 years afterward.

      Causes of cerebral hemorrhage which for this argument = severe head trauma:
      Brain aneurysm
      Ruptured aneurysm - various arterial conditions
      Arteriosclerosis
      Cerebral arteriosclerosis
      Brain injury
      Head injury
      Post menopausal vaginal bleeding
      Congenital artery defect
      Cerebrovascular accident
      Hemorrhagic stroke
      As a complication of concussion, hypertension, polycystic kidney disease, whooping cough, drug interactions such as Warfarin & ginkgo

      Risk factors: hypertension, diabetes, menopause, cigarette smoking, alcohol, caffeine
      What is interesting is that both cigarette smoking and caffeine are somewhat neuroprotective for Parkinson's so that might work to reduce the odds. Menopause, however is an increased risk factor for women developing PD so that would probably up the odds.

      You have the brain hemorrhage and survive - beating some significant odds and "Whew! made it out safely" and then it appears years later. It isn't BAM and then PD.

      Here are some links about head trauma which might help. As you will see, it is thought that the trauma initially kills brain cells and as the person ages, more cells die of the aging process itself.
      http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0…

      In 2003 the Mayo Clinic found that people who had a head injury were 4x more prone to having PD later in life than those who had not. If the injury required hospitalization, the odds went up 8X. The the injury was severe - 11X. Severe means loss of consciousness and brain bruising.

      There have been recent small studies which contradict the above however. Still the majority of research points to severe head trauma as a contributory factor. This link indicates the importance in the care of the original injury(s):
      http://drtanase.com/2009/02/22/upper-cervical-care-helps-parkinsons-disease-sufferers/

      Currently there is at least one long term study following athletes who play in sports which contain a greater risk of severe head trauma. Back in the day when Mohammad Ali fought, the brain scan technology was limited. Now injury can be seen in many cases: This may provide hope for athletes and others who suffer head trauma but also for researchers investigating conditions resulting from the trauma in an attempt to find treatments and cures.

      http://www.nydailynews.com/lifestyle/health/2009/06/03/2009-06-03_modern_brain_scanning_technology_offers_simple_look_at_.html
      http://brainandspine.titololawoffice.com/2009/09/articles/brain-injury/new-hope-for-severe-head-trauma-treatment/

      Knowing the odds are greater, patients should be their own best monitors for precursor signs of Parkinson's disease because even beginning to lose the sense of smell which can often be seen by decreased sense of flavor of food which is related to the aroma, should not be overlooked. If PD treatments begin early, whether with nutritional supplements, alternative treatments or medication or all of the above, there is a greater chance to slow progression.

      In situations like this regular check-ups following the trauma are important to track any changes. If suspected precursor symptoms occur, your cardiologist or primary care physician will refer you to a neurologist specializing in motor disorders.

      I hope this helps.

  27. QUESTION:
    When one ovary is removed, does the other over-compensate for it?
    I just found out that I have a large cyst on my right ovary, so large that my entire ovary may have to be removed. Will my left ovary over-compensate since my right one will be missing?

    • ANSWER:
      Not, over-compensate, but it will continue to do its job if it's functioning properly.

      What kind of treatment has been suggested BEFORE surgery becomes your only option?

      I had a cyst measuring 10cm on an ovary measuring 6cm, and went on Lupron to induce temporary menopause. Not fun, but avoiding the surgery was better in the long run.

      Look for alternatives!

  28. QUESTION:
    When does Lupron's side effects kick in?
    I have endometriosis and a week ago I was given Lurpon for three months. I know all the side effects and the menopause symptoms. How long does it take for the hot flashes to appear? I figured I would've had something by now. I've read about the shot but nothing has been helpful. If you have been through this or know someone please help.

    Thanks!!

    • ANSWER:
      Hi there,
      Lupron will vary in the level of side-effects and some woman experience only a mild case of them. I had them within 2 months on it and they kept saying they will improve. I personally found them unbearable. I have found better ways of dealing with Endometriosis than with hormonal treatments that just mess up your body. If you want to look at alternatives or even just want some little tips to help you when you have pain, you can check out my blog.

  29. QUESTION:
    Have you ever been on seasonale? If so how did this work for you and what are the pros and cons?
    I am considering using this or a new one called seasonique or something close to that but am a little afraid of the side effects such as spotting or bleeding frequently, because this is the reason I am trying to get on birth control to regulate periods and my pms

    • ANSWER:
      Here are a few links if you'd like to learn more about the Big Announcement on Friday December 15th that, WITHOUT A DOUBT, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) causes breast cancer. Since the time when women were discouraged from taking HRT back in 2001-2002, breast cancer rates have sharply dropped by an unprecedented 7%! In the scientific community, this is a bombshell proof positive of the connection. Note that breast cancer rates originally started increasing rapidly when birth control pills and now other forms of hormonal birth control began to be widely used. Hormonal birth control methods contain the SAME hormones that are also the most widely used in HRT (estrogen and progestin). Hormonal birth control methods include; The Pill, The Mini-Pill, The Patch, some types of IUDs, Nuva Ring, Depo Shots, and Nor-Plant. Hormone levels in HRT are actually lower than levels found in hormonal birth control methods. Consider that on top of the fact that hormonal birth control methods are used by young healthy women with already normal levels of naturally occurring hormones. They’re getting MASSIVE dosages, even with the more modern low-dose pills being used.

      How long will we have to wait before the medical community admits to women that hormonal birth control methods are just as dangerous as HRT? I have a feeling that it will be much longer, as hormonal birth control is considered to be the "holy grail" of "women's reproductive freedom". Never mind that women are dying of breast cancer at alarmingly increasing rates since 1974, around the time when landmark cases were decided and BC pills began to be more widely used. Thirty years later, we are reaping the "benefits" of artificial hormones that are used to suppress and tinker with the natural processes of the female body.

      The female bodily functions of ovulation, pregnancy and menopause ARE NOT ILLNESSES. Medications should only be taken when it's absolutely necessary to prevent or cure ILLNESS, and then ONLY if the benefit outweighs the risks. If you have a medical condition that your doctor wants to treat with hormones, make sure to do YOUR research and challenge his or her opinion. Get a second or even a third opinion. Explore alternative treatments. Doctors are not infallible and in the end, only YOU can determine the best course of action with regard to your health. Only after you’ve exhausted your other options, if it is apparent that hormones are the only treatment that makes sense, then by all means, DO IT.

      If you must practice birth control and cannot try abstinence; condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps used correctly with plenty of spermicide gel or foam, are STATISTICALLY JUST AS EFFECTIVE as hormonal birth control. Condoms also decrease your chances of contracting an STD and they don't work by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg, like hormonal birth control does. If you are pro-life and believe that life begins at conception, this last point should be of particular interest to you. Abortifacient types of birth control also include non-hormonal types of IUDs, which work exclusively by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg…they don’t even ATTEMPT to stop ovulation and subsequent fertilization…and they can cause uterine perforations and other complications. Even if you DON’T have any moral objection to the abortifacient birth control methods, at least stop using hormonal birth control and IUDs for the sake of your own health!

      HOW HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND HORMONAL BIRTH CONTROL METHODS HAVE NOW DEFINITELY BEEN SHOWN TO CAUSE CANCER
      http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1025191125.html
      http://www.cnn.com/2006/HEALTH/12/15/gupta.breast.cancer/
      ALTERNATIVES TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
      http://www.womentowomen.com/bioidentical-hrt/index.asp?id=1&campaignno=getoffhrt&adgroup=adgroup2&keywords=hormone+replacement+therapy
      http://www.power-surge.com
      HOW SOME TYPES OF BIRTH CONTROL CAN CAUSE ABORTION WITHOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE, ALONG WITH INFORMATION ABOUT NON-HORMONAL BARRIER BIRTH CONTROL METHODS THAT ARE JUST AS EFFECTIVE
      http://abort73.com/HTML/II-D-2-types.html
      THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BIRTH CONTROL AND HOW IT IS ANTI-WOMAN
      http://www.the-edith-stein-foundation.com/articles.asp?col=2

  30. QUESTION:
    Trying to help a massage client with evasive lobular carcinoma of the breast?
    I have a client who has stage 4 evasive lobular carcino of the right breast. It is caused by her body making massive amounts of estrogen and progesterone from some where in her body. They tried giving her a medication that would put her into menopause to stop the production of the estrogen but she got violently
    ill after just two tablets. It actually did give her the symptoms of menopause but the depression was so severe she cryed for two days and was actually thinking of suicide which is something she never thinks of. She stopped taking the medication after the second pill and it took 2 days to lose the side effects. They say it is too big to do surgery (the tumor) and that chemo and radiation will not cure this type of cancer. We have been doing energy work which helps but periods make the tumor grow more. We are looking to find out if there is any other type of treatment for this condition that is alternative. I have some carsinoma homeopathic beads Will this help?

    • ANSWER:
      There is an alternative treatment if your interested, its not used alot in the US. Europe and other nations worldwide are using it alot more. Its called BCEC (Biologically closed electrical circuit). It might sound weird but the treatment method is easier on the patient than traditional chemo/radiation and the end results are remarkebly high. I suggest it to people before starting the chemo/radiation treatment.
      It was created by Dr. Björn E.W. Nordenström.
      His website is http://www.iabc.readywebsites.com/page/page/623957.htm
      If you want more info check out http://www.emfscience.net

  31. QUESTION:
    Hyperhidrosis Treatment - How Do I Stop Excessive Sweating?

    • ANSWER:
      Hyperhidrosis (or excessive sweating / perspiration) is caused by underlying conditions such as hyperthyroidism, endocrine treatment for prostatic cancer, psychiatric disorders including stress & anxiety, obesity and menopause.

      In secondary hyperhidrosis, the underlying condition should be treated first, which is usually done through the administration of antiestrogens (ciproterone acetate).

      In people with primary hyperhidrosis or for treatment of heavy sweating in patients with secondary hyperhidrosis, not treatable otherwise, the methods adopted include antiperspirants, iontophoresis, drugs, botulinum toxin (botox), surgery and alternative remedies.

  32. QUESTION:
    what natural herbal remedies can be used for menapausal cancer patient?
    the menapause was brought on by the cancer,is there a safe herbal treatment normal medicines cannot be used due to post cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      I would recommend you go to see a homeopathic doctor who can give you some specific remedies tailored to the person. A good one that I know of is Sepia 30CH...but you should see a homeopath. Homeopathic remedies are the SAFEST medicines in the whole world. They do not interact with any medications or treatments and cause absolutely no side effects. They work 100% of the time if the remedy matches the symptom. Try them out! Its the only 100% safe alternative. Some herbs you can use are black cohosh, sage extract, Evening Primrose oil or Dong Quai...but if the person is on medications, then I wouldnt use herbs. The evening primrose might be ok because its a oil from a flower. Alot of menopause symptoms show themselves because our livers are so overtaxed that they cant filter our hormones properly. A simple safe way to help out your liver is to take the juice of an organic lemon in a cup of warm water every morning as a little mini safe liver cleanser. That can help a bit too. But please seek out a natural practitioner, you can ask your local health food store because they normally have a list of names of good ones that they come accorss. Good luck!

  33. QUESTION:
    How do u get ride of ovarian cyst?
    I have had a surgery for ovarian cyst last yr... but it's growing again and im getting more pain... but i dont want to have another surgery, is there any other treatment?

    • ANSWER:
      YES!!!!

      An alternative treatment for ovarian cysts is natural progesterone.

      The signaling mechanism that shuts off ovulation in one ovary each cycle is the production of progesterone in the other. If sufficient natural progesterone is supplemented prior to ovulation, LH levels are inhibited and both ovaries think the other one has ovulated, so regular ovulation does not occur. (This is the same effect as contraceptive pills.) Similarly, the high estriol and progesterone levels throughout pregnancy successfully inhibit ovarian activity for nine months. Therefore, adding natural progesterone from day 10 to day 26 of the cycle suppresses LH and it’s luteinizing effects. Thus the ovarian cyst will not be stimulated and, in the passage of one or two such monthly cycles, will very likely shrink and disappear without further treatment.

      This is from the book "What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause" by Dr. John R. Lee. He is a foremost authority in treating women with Natural Progesterone for so many things. So much of what a woman suffers is from hormone imbalance and nothing else.

  34. QUESTION:
    What are good alternative treatments (natural, herbal) for Menopause-specifically hot flashes? ?

    • ANSWER:
      Well, the most popular natural products for hormone support would be Dong Quai, Black Cohosh, Vitex (also called Chasteberry), Wild Yam, Damiana Leaf, Motherwort, GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid, commonly in Borage Oil and Evening Primrose Oil), and/or some Soy germ products.
      Good luck!

  35. QUESTION:
    What are some safe, natural products that promote weight loss?

    Okay, I should have been a little more specific. I was thinking more along the lines of herbs and products that a naturopath would recommend. Not the obvious stuff that some people have come up with. Thank you in advance. PS, due to an earlier experience, I truly would appreciate sincere, constructive advice minus unnecessary name calling.

    • ANSWER:
      If we offered you a miracle remedy that prevents and cures "Obesity" would you buy it? Certainly you would. You won’t find it in a Pharmacy but at the Grocery Store.

      Try the Natural Cures for Obesity.

      Obesity may be described as a bodily condition characterised by excessive deposition or storage of fat in adipose tissue. It usually results from consumption of food in excess of physiological needs. Obesity is common among people in Western countries and among the higher income groups in India and other developing countries.

      Obesity can occur at any age in either sex. Its incidence is higher in persons who consume more food and lead sedentary lives. Among women, obesity is liable to occur after pregnancy and at menopause. A woman usually gains about 12 kgs of weight during pregnancy. Part of this is an increase in the adipose tissue, which serves as a store against the demands of lactation. Many women gain more and retain part of this weight. They become progressively obese with each succeeding child.

      Obesity is a serious health hazard as the extra fats puts a strain on the heart, kidneys and liver as well as the large weight-bearing joints such as the hips, knees and ankles, which ultimately shortens the life span. It has been truly said, ‘the longer the belt, the short the life.‘ Overweight persons are susceptible to several diseases like coronary thrombosis, heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis, gout, and liver and gall-bladder disorders.

      Causes: The chief cause of obesity, most often, is overeating - i.e., the intake of calories beyond the body’s energy requirement. Some people are habituated to eating too much while others may be in the habit of consuming high-calorie foods. These people gain weight continuously as they fail to adjust their appetite to reduce energy requirements. There has, in recent times, been an increase in awareness of psychological aspects of obesity. Persons who are generally bored, unhappy, lonely, or unloved, those who are discontented with their families, or social or financial standing usually tend to overeat as eating is a pleasure and solace to them.

      Obesity is sometimes also the result of disturbances of the thyroid or pituitary glands. But glandular disorders account for only about 2% of the total incidence of obesity. In such persons, the basal metabolism rate is low and they keep gaining weight unless they take a low-calorie diet.

      Treatment: A suitably planned course of dietetic treatment, in conjunction with suitable exercise and other measures for promoting elimination is the only scientific way of dealing with obesity. The chief consideration in this treatment should be the balanced selection of foods which provide the maximum essential nutrients with the least number of calories.

      To begin with, the patient should undertake a juice fast for 7-10 days. Juices of lemon, grape fruit, orange, pineapple, cabbage, celery, may be taken during this period. Long juice fast up to 40 days can also be undertaken, but only under expert guidance and supervision. In the alternative, short juice fasts should be repeated at regular intervals of two months or so till the desired reduction in weight is achieved.

      After the juice fast, the patient should spend a further four or five days on an all-fruit diet, taking three meals of fresh juicy fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, pineapple and papaya. Thereafter, he may gradually embark upon a low-calorie well- balanced diet of three basic food groups, namely (i) seeds, nuts and grains, (ii) vegetables and (iii) fruits, with emphasis on raw fruits, vegetables, and fresh juices.

      The foods which should be drastically curtailed or altogether avoided are high-fat foods such as butter, cheese, chocolates, cream, ice-cream, fat meats, fried foods, and gravies; high carbohydrate foods like bread, candy, cake, cookies, cereal products, legumes, potatoes, honey, sugar, syrup and rich puddings beverages such as all-fountain drinks and alcoholic drinks.

      One sure method of reducing weight is by practicising what is known as "Fletcherism". It was discovered in 1898 by Horace Fletcher of the U.S.A.. Fletlcher, at 40, considered himself an old man. He was 50 pounds overweight, contracted flu every six months and constantly complained of indigestion and a tired feeling. After a deep study, he made some important discoveries and prescribed the rules for "Fletcherism" which are as follows:

      1. Chew your food to a pulp or milky liquid until it practically swallows itself.
      2. Never eat until hungry.
      3. Enjoy every bite or morsel, savouring the flavour until it is swallowed.
      4. Do not eat when tired, angry, worried, and at mealtime refuse to think or talk about unpleasant subjects.

      Horace Fletcher followed these rules for five months. As a result he lost more than 60 pounds and felt better than he had for 20 years. A weight-reducing programme built on Fletcherism works wonders and is worth a trial.

      Ingestion of honey is an excellent home remedy for obesity. It mobilises the extra deposited fat in the body and puts it into circulation which is utilised as energy for normal functions. One should start with small quantity of about 10 g to be taken with hot water. The dose can be gradually increased.

      Fasting on honey-lime juice water is highly beneficial in the treatment of obesity without the loss of energy and appetite. In this mode of treatment, one spoon of fresh honey should be mixed with a juice of half a lime in a glass of lukewarm water and taken at regularly intervals. Another effective remedy for obesity is an exclusive lemon juice diet. On the first day the patient should be given nothing but plenty of water. On the second day juice of three lemons mixed with equal amount of water should be given. One lemon should be subsequently increased each day until the juice of 12 lemons is consumed per day. Then the number of lemons should be decreased in the same order until three lemons are taken in a day. The patient may feel weak and hungry on the first two days, but afterwards the condition will be stabilised by itself. Cabbage is considered to be an effective home remedy for obesity. Recent research has discovered in this vegetable a valuable content called tartroric acid which inhibits the conversion of sugar and other carbohydrates into fat. Hence, it is of great value in weight reduction. A helping of cabbage salad would be the simplest way to stay slim, a painless way of dieting. A 100 g of cabbage yields only 27 kg of calories of energy while the same quantity of wheat bread will yield about 240 calories. Cabbage is found to possess the maximum biological value with minimum calorific value. Moreover, it gives a lasting feeling of fullness in the stomach and is easily digestible.

      Along with dietetic treatment, the patient should adopt all other natural methods of reducing weight. Exercise is an important part of weight reduction plan. It helps to use up calories stored in body fat and relieves tension, besides toning up the muscles of the body. Walking is the best exercise to begin with and may be followed by running, swimming, rowing, and other outdoor sports.

      Certain yogi asanas are highly beneficial. Not only do they break up or redistribute fatty deposits and help slimming, but they also strengthen the flabby areas.

      Sarvangasana, halasana, bhujangasana, shalabhasana, dhanurasana, chakrasana, naukasana, ardh-matsyendrasana, paschimottanasana, vajrasana, yogamudra, and trikonasana are recommended. These asanas work on the glands, improve circulation, strengthen many weak areas and induce deep breathing which helps to melt off excess fat gradually. Yogic kriyas like kunjal and jalneti and pranayamas such as kapalbhati and bhastrika are also helpful in normalising body weight.

      The patient should also adopt measures which bring on excessive perspiration such as sauna baths, steam bath, and heavy massage. They help to reduce weight. Above all, obese persons should make every effort to avoid negative motions such as anxiety, fear, hostility and insecurity and develop a positive outlook on life.

      Hope this helps, Good Luck.

  36. QUESTION:
    treatment for peri menopause?
    hi i am 47 and think that i have symptoms of the peri menopause.

    Can any one advise me what treatment there is for the mood swings/depression associated with the above?

    Should i try alternative remedies ? do they work? i dont want to waste money.
    should i ask gp for the pill or hrt?

    i just dont want to go on feeling like this .
    can anyone advise?

    • ANSWER:
      The average UK age at menopause is 52, however 47 is not uncommon. Generally the diagnosis is based on symptoms rather than investigation. HRT is still the most effective symptom management, though you must weigh up the risks against the benefits. Discuss this with your GP.

  37. QUESTION:
    How to help oily skin?
    my skin has recently gotten really oily. I don't know why. But, anyone know what I can do to help get rid of it? i already wash my face on a daily basis and i have blotting papers. and still within a few hours of blotting my face or washing it, my face gets insanely oily again. anyone know how i can fix this?

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Your "skin has recently gotten really oil" because of a few reasons: 1) puberty 2) menstruation 3) stress. Females can get oily skin as long has they have their periods until menopause. The best you can do is not irritate your oil glands and make it worse with a well-designed regimen with well-formulated products while absorbing excess oil. Even the "best" mattifying absorbent product on the market would fail if your oil glands is hyperactive. For women, you can ask your personal physician for hormone block or birth control bills to regulate hormone fluctuation.

      Overview: Cleanse (AM/PM) --> Exfoliate (AM or PM) --> Acne Medication (AM/PM) --> Moisturizer (AM or PM; optional) --> Sunscreen (AM)

      -- Cleansers – removes dirty, oil, makeup, dead skin cells and any other residuals built up over time
      Boots Expert Anti-Blemish Cleansing Foam OR Olay Foaming Face Wash, Sensitive OR CeraVe Foaming Cleanser is great options. All three contain no fragrance or colorant (nFoC).

      -- Exfoliant – Unglues dead skin cell | stimulate collagen over time | even out skin tone
      Neutrogena Oil-Free Acne Stress Control 3-in-1 Hydrating Acne Treatment with 2% salicylic acid (SA; pH ~ 3.4). This product does contain fragrance and coloring additives, but they are in minute amounts. If you have sensitivity to those ingredients, then try Paula’s Choice 2% beta hydroxy acid “gel” or “liquid” version (pH 3.2-6); either one is good. SA acts as a triple threat: an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and an oil-soluble exfoliant. Its solubility allows it to exfoliate the pore lining to dislodge any clog to permit a better flow of oil. If you are allergic to aspirin, then avoid SA. Your alternative is a mandelic acid or glycolic acid -based product such as M2 Skin Refinish 12% OR 20% OR Paula’s Choice 8% alpha hydroxy acid gel (pH ~3.5-3.8) with nFoC. Mandelic acid is better because it has antibacterial properties, too. If you have sensitivity to any acids, you probably want to stick with a physical scrub such as Neutrogena Fresh Foaming Scrub with round polyethylene beads as the scrubbing agent. The efficacy of exfoliation of scrubs is not on par with chemical exfoliation. But before you go for the scrub, try ease up the application of chemical exfoliant if you have low tolerance for it at first. For example, try to apply it every other night, or every third night, or once a week and gradually increase application frequency. Or, you can apply the chemical exfoliant for 5-10 minutes and rinse it off; do this for a week and increase leave-on application as you achieve higher tolerance for the acid.

      -- Acne Medication – oxidizing agent that destroy acne bacteria
      Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is the gold-standard acne treatment. The FDA and declared it to be safe and effective. Acne bacteria cannot develop resistance to benzoyl peroxide. Research has shown that a 2.5% BP is just as effective as 5% or 10% BP without the irritation (peeling, burning, redness, etc). However, if your skin has a more aggressive form of acne, you may just want to try a higher concentration of BP. If you prefer an organized system that takes the guess work out for you, then try Proactiv. Acne.org also offers a system and it is cheaper because you get for product per dollar. The drugstore has a few good options. Oxy Clinical Clearing Treatment has 5% BP while Clean and Clear Persa-Gel contain 10% BP. If you have sensitive to BP, an alternative may be sulfur-containing product such as Clearasil Adult Acne Treatment Cream, Tinted with 8% sulfur and 2% resorcinol; however, this product can be “strong” so do a patch test to be on the safe side. If you have tolerance issue, try the methods I proposed above in the exfoliant section.

      -- Sunscreen – UV protection
      Sunscreen is absolutely important for any skin type. Sun UV-rays are detrimental to the health of your skin. UVB is the burning ray whereas UV-A is the aging ray. Neutrogena Age Shield SPF 55 has nFoC. If you are very oil, then try Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Liquid Sunblock SPF 55 (low amount of fragrance); its liquid consistency and mineral silica leave a matte finish. The duration of the matte effect depends how active your oil glands are, so you may want to blot throughout the day ( a tissue paper is just fine). If you have sensitivity to synthetic sunscreen agent, then your alternative has to be sun product with just titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide. They provide board-spectrum product with high safety profile and almost no irritation potential because of their inert nature. Neutrogena Pure & Free Liquid Sunblock SPF 50 with 5% titanium dioxide and 3% zinc oxide has nFoC.

      Result may take at least 2 months with PATIENCE & COMPLIANCE. If your acne is persistent and non-responsive to this regimen, consult with a board-certified dermatologist for topical prescription or even Isotretinoin. Isotretinoin shrinks oil glands --> no more oil --> no more acne or blackheads.

      Best wishes

  38. QUESTION:
    adrenal fatigue and helicobacter pylori infection?
    It is related right?
    what would be the common symptoms of adrenal fatigue?

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not a doctor, but have learned a few things from some excellent ones that cared for me, and I was also a pre-med student.

      My understanding is this - Adrenal glands are an integral part of the endocrine system of both sexes. Adrenal stress may be caused by many factors which eventually overburden the organism so it no longer can keep up with demand for the "stress hormones" secreted by the adrenals. Chronic "negative" stress includes: sleep deprivation, excessive consumption of refined sugars, long-term steroid use (as for lung disease), hostile work environment, abusive home, inadequate nutrition to meet body demands, etc.

      The result is a weakened or absent stress response, which at worst may put a person into shock from something as ordinary as having a tooth pulled. At the minimum it can cause irritability, chronic fatigue, body aches, low resistance to infection, and poor/fuzzy thinking.

      It is not connected to menopause. Adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys, and produce cortisol, not "sex hormones". Homeopathic support may help, as may herbs, supplements, and accupuncture, but a trained N.D. (naturopathic doctor) is needed. Adrenal fatigue and adrenal exhaustion are serious conditions, which need careful monitoring and holistic care for recovery.

      Allopathic medicine (western medicine), the conventional MD, is not well versed in these conditions, and holds no hope for adrenal failure or adrenal failure cases - which are potentially life threatening. (See Cushing's Disease.) They will tell a patient that lifetime steroid dependance and treatment of concurrent damage from that drug must be accepted.

      Naturopaths, TCM (Chinese medicine), and holistic MDs like Dr. Andrew Weil or Derrick Lonsdale (both poineers in alternative or complementary medicine)have different views. The have had some success with "incurable" cases of various sorts, including adrenal suppression.

      An MD can have a cortisol response test done, using an IV, a shot of steroid, and 2 steroid blood levels over 2 hours. There is also a saliva collection test to monitor steroids in the body, which is also reliable, but less well known. You MAY be able to order one online, but a doctor should help you interpret the lab's report for you.

  39. QUESTION:
    mono pose problem like bed Hadek last 2 months as like migraine please tell me what to do i like to no?
    .

    • ANSWER:
      Menopause problem? like bad. had for like the last two months. Its like a migraine. Please tell you what you want to know?

      What is it that you would like to know? Menopause is when a woman stops having her period. It can cause many different kinds of symptoms. These problems are a result of changing hormones.

      For either migraine headaches or menopause symptoms you need to talk to a medical doctor. Only a professional can help you figure out a good treatment plan.
      At least visit a doctor to get a firm diagnosis. Once you know for sure what it is that you have then you have the option of treating it with either western medicine, eastern / alternative medicine, ayurvedic medicine, or with traditional herbs.

  40. QUESTION:
    Is a hysterectomy painful after wards?
    I am in alot of pain with Endometriosis and I want the pain to stop but will the histerectomy hurt as well when the surgery is done and what about all the hormones will they change my sex life?

    • ANSWER:
      Depends on a lot of factors...for instance:

      "Why": if Endo is the "only" reason for the hysterectomy, please know that there are alternative treatments and that a hyst is *not* in any way a cure for Endo. At all. If you have disease left behind anywhere in the body after the hyst, whether the ovaries are removed or not, you will have disease recurence without fail. Endo implants produce their own estrogen-synthesizing enzyme called Aromatase; it is because of Aromatase that the majority of women who have undergone hyst without proper removal of disease (excision, see www.centerforendo.com for details) will continue to experience pain. "Hyst as a cure" is an old wives tale, along with "pregnancy is a cure" and "menopause is a cure."

      "How:" an LAVH [laparoscopic assisted vaginal hyst] is less invasive and offers quicker recovery. An abdominal hyst is far more invasive and has longer recovery. Vaginal hyst is less invasive and has faster recovery overall than the others above, but can affect sexual function. Vaginal hysterectomy is preferable to abdominal hysterectomy where possible, however. Where vaginal hysterectomy is not possible, laparoscopic hysterectomy is preferable to abdominal hysterectomy, although it brings a higher chance of bladder or ureter injury [Methods of Hysterectomy: Systematic Review & Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials; BMJ. 2005 Jun 25;330(7506):1478].

      "What:" as in, what will be done, i.e., removal of uterus only, hysterectomy with oophorectomy [removal of one or both ovaries], hysterectomy with salpingoopherectomy [removal of one or both fallopian tubes], radical hysterectomy, which removes the uterus, cervix, the top portion of the vagina and most of the tissue that surrounds the cervix in the pelvic cavity. Pelvic lymph nodes may also be removed; supracervical hysterectomy, also referred to as a subtotal hysterectomy, which removes the uterus while leaving the cervix intact.

      It is a major operation, any way you cut it (no pun intended). It will take at least 2 weeks or longer to be completely healed, again, depending on what was done, how complicated your surgery was, etc. Abdominal surgery recovery is expected to be easily longer than 2 weeks till you feel "normal."

      If the surgery is done for a good and valid reason (valid scientific research has offered abundant evidence that Endometriosis does not count as a "good, valid reason" if no other treatment has been conferred previously), and all precautions are being taken to give the patient the most effective, safest and least invasive method of surgery, AND her surgical menopause issues will be addressed (if ovaries are removed) by her concerned, compassionate doctor afterward, AND she feels comfortable with all of the decisions, then the long-term outlook should be perfectly fine. It hurts, just as with any other surgery, but the pain does resolve.

      I am concerned for you that you are undergoing a hyst without being fully informed. Please - do talk to others first and do some research on excision of Endometriosis as a worthwhile, advanced treatment option before consenting to the hyst. I would hate for you to suffer needlessly. http://www.endocenter.org, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/erc and http://www.centerforendo.com are good places to start.

      Good luck no matter what you decide.

  41. QUESTION:
    having piles and suggested for laser. what to do?
    my mother is 47 and has piles. both inner and outer piles. she is now suggested to undergo a laser operation. my question is what is laser operation?
    will it have any side effects in future and forever?
    will she be a position to undergo an another operation in her life for this sake?
    how much hours will be taken to do a laser?
    how much hours for rest after operation? am being in chennai how much will it cost for a laser and which hospital is cheap and best for it? though its not cheaper no issues treatment is important.
    note: she is nearing her menopause and having irregular periods right now. she has only one baby with a normal delivery. no obortion undergone. diabtic patient for four years. 216 before fasting and 292 after eating. (as per march 1st)
    exact answers are welcomed.
    thanks a ton in advance

    • ANSWER:
      Laser treatment is very expensive. Even diabetes plays a role in this. Her blood sugar is not under control. Take her to a Diabetologist for treatment asap. Try the following first.
      Piles
      Piles are either dry or bleeding and often caused by chronic constipation, hard and knotty slots, intake of spices, wines, meats and also by poor or absent physical activity. Dry piles are more painful, while bleeding piles render a person weaker. Pregnant ladies, elderly persons, sedentary persons who eat enormously and quite often but do no exercise, or the person taking above-mentioned dietary items, are more prone to piles. Persistent complaint may cause other complications also, such as fissures, cancerous growths, pain, swelling, smarting etc.
      Types of Piles
      Dry piles - In dry piles there is inflammation of the external piles, continuous pain and become unbearable while voiding the bowels.
      Bleeding piles - In bleeding piles, the internal piles start bleeding and there may be excessive bleeding which lead to anaemia and consequent emaciation.
      Causes
      A person suffers from piles when the anal region veins become varicose. The prime causes of piles are:
      Constipation
      Sedentary way of life
      Lack of exercise
      Some morbid conditions of the liver.
      Ayurvedic Home Remedies
      Use oil of Cypress or Juniper in the bath or using some drops of either to a bowl of cold water for improving circulation. Abdomen should be massaged with a 2% oil dilution, to any vegetable oil used as a base oil of Rosemary or Marjoram.
      Apply locally commercial creams processed from the extracts of -
      (i) Morse chestmt (Aescutus hippocastanum)
      (ii) Pilecort (Ranunculus ficaria) or Marigold (Calendula officinalis).
      Tincture of distilled witch Hazel (Hamamelis Virginiana) is astringent and can be safely used as a compress. It will also provide relief in prolonged bleeding which can also be prevented by using tea prepared from Nettle (Urtica Deocca).
      All the ointments or cream are available from homeopath pharmacists retailers. Remember, frequent and profuse bleeding is liable to cause general weakness and anaemia also, hence don't let it prolong.
      Use of caster oil with milk or 1 TSP with a warm cup of tea or, still better, Isabghole Husk (1 TSP) with warm milk will help in softening stool and thus, cause easy and almost painless passage thereof.
      Alternative is to take a tea spoon of Triphala with water at bed-time. It shows its effects.
      Precaution
      The patient should be advised not to use a hard seat or ride horses during the course of treatment. He should not indulge in too much sex, nor suppress the urge to void the stools for fear of pain which accompanies dry piles.

  42. QUESTION:
    My period is always long and heavy, is this bad?
    It's been going on for 8 days right now. It usually goes on for 8 or 9 days, but last month it was only for three days.

    It's always moderately heavy too (I bleed through a regular tampon every 3 or 4 hours).

    Is this bad? Why is this? Is it genetic? (my mom had long periods too) What can I do to shorten my periods, besides birth control?

    I am VERY active and pretty light (5'3", 99lbs) and my period is getting in the way of sports!

    • ANSWER:
      First i would like to tell u the Medical name of your condtion and its called (menorrhagia)

      and second there is 2 reason for that:

      In younger women heavy periods are most often due to a temporary hormone imbalance, which eventually corrects itself.

      In the years close to the menopause, (45 years of age onwards) heavy periods are usually a sign of hormone imbalance. However, the possibility of heavy periods being caused by an underlying disease increases with age.

      third You can treat it In this :

      If the problems are severe, bleeding may be regulated by tablet treatment. These may be hormonal or non-hormonal.

      Hormonal treatments include the contraceptive pill and danazol (eg Danol).

      Progestogens are effective in making a woman's periods more regular but do not reduce the monthly flow.

      Non-hormonal treatments include tranexamic acid (eg Cyklokapron), which reduces the blood loss by up to half.

      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce monthly loss by about a third.

      Alternative approaches include the use of a hormone containing contraceptive coil (Mirena), which is suitable for most women.

      Surgical alternatives include destroying the lining of the womb with a laser or applying heat treatment to the lining of the womb with hot water in a balloon. Hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus - is commonly performed for heavy periods. These two surgical procedures are only appropriate for women who do not wish to have any more children.

      If a diagnosis of an underlying condition is made, then the treatment will be tailored towards that condition.

      If the woman is anaemic, iron or folic acid supplements may be needed.

      Dr: Martin larson

      feel free to ask me anything

  43. QUESTION:
    Best type of birth control for me?
    Im currently on the pill Yasmin, which is working fine for me but Im really worried about the side effects. Breast cancer really runs in my family, and so does strokes and high blood pressure. Also, my mom had a really painful ovarian cyst when she was my age, which is also caused by the pill. What other type of birth control do you suggest I try? Im thinking either the patch or the shot, but how effective are they/is anyone of you on these? Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      The patch and the shot are also both hormonal methods of birth control, so switching to those from the BC pill would do nothing to alleviate your risk of breast cancer.

      Here are a few links if you'd like to learn more about the Big Announcement on Friday December 15th that, WITHOUT A DOUBT, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) causes breast cancer. Since the time when women were discouraged from taking HRT back in 2001-2002, breast cancer rates have sharply dropped by an unprecedented 7%! In the scientific community, this is a bombshell proof positive of the connection. Note that breast cancer rates originally started increasing rapidly when birth control pills and now other forms of hormonal birth control began to be widely used. Hormonal birth control methods contain the SAME hormones that are also the most widely used in HRT (estrogen and progestin). Hormonal birth control methods include; The Pill, The Mini-Pill, The Patch, some types of IUDs, Nuva Ring, Depo Shots, and Nor-Plant. Hormone levels in HRT are actually lower than levels found in hormonal birth control methods. Consider that on top of the fact that hormonal birth control methods are used by young healthy women with already normal levels of naturally occurring hormones. They’re getting MASSIVE dosages, even with the more modern low-dose pills being used.

      How long will we have to wait before the medical community admits to women that hormonal birth control methods are just as dangerous as HRT? I have a feeling that it will be much longer, as hormonal birth control is considered to be the "holy grail" of "women's reproductive freedom". Never mind that women are dying of breast cancer at alarmingly increasing rates since 1974, around the time when landmark cases were decided and BC pills began to be more widely used. Thirty years later, we are reaping the "benefits" of artificial hormones that are used to suppress and tinker with the natural processes of the female body.

      The female bodily functions of ovulation, pregnancy and menopause ARE NOT ILLNESSES. Medications should only be taken when it's absolutely necessary to prevent or cure ILLNESS, and then ONLY if the benefit outweighs the risks. If you have a medical condition that your doctor wants to treat with hormones, make sure to do YOUR research and challenge his or her opinion. Get a second or even a third opinion. Explore alternative treatments. Doctors are not infallible and in the end, only YOU can determine the best course of action with regard to your health. Only after you’ve exhausted your other options, if it is apparent that hormones are the only treatment that makes sense, then by all means, DO IT.

      If you must practice birth control and cannot try abstinence; condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps used correctly with plenty of spermicide gel or foam, are STATISTICALLY JUST AS EFFECTIVE as hormonal birth control. Condoms also decrease your chances of contracting an STD and they don't work by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg, like hormonal birth control does. If you are pro-life and believe that life begins at conception, this last point should be of particular interest to you. Abortifacient types of birth control also include non-hormonal types of IUDs, which work exclusively by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg…they don’t even ATTEMPT to stop ovulation and subsequent fertilization…and they can cause uterine perforations and other complications. Even if you DON’T have any moral objection to the abortifacient birth control methods, at least stop using hormonal birth control and IUDs for the sake of your own health!

      HOW HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND HORMONAL BIRTH CONTROL METHODS HAVE NOW DEFINITELY BEEN SHOWN TO CAUSE CANCER
      http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1025191125.html
      http://www.cnn.com/2006/HEALTH/12/15/gupta.breast.cancer/
      ALTERNATIVES TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
      http://www.womentowomen.com/bioidentical-hrt/index.asp?id=1&campaignno=getoffhrt&adgroup=adgroup2&keywords=hormone+replacement+therapy
      http://www.power-surge.com
      HOW SOME TYPES OF BIRTH CONTROL CAN CAUSE ABORTION WITHOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE, ALONG WITH INFORMATION ABOUT NON-HORMONAL BARRIER BIRTH CONTROL METHODS THAT ARE JUST AS EFFECTIVE
      http://abort73.com/HTML/II-D-2-types.html
      THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BIRTH CONTROL AND HOW IT IS ANTI-WOMAN
      http://www.the-edith-stein-foundation.com/articles.asp?col=2

  44. QUESTION:
    Is anyone familiar with black cohosh?
    I am wondering about its effectiveness in bringing on a delayed period. I am looking for a good alternative to provera. My cycles are already irregular and I really want to limit the hormones that I put into my body. I have the capsules.

    • ANSWER:
      I hope this site helps.

      Introduction
      This fact sheet provides basic information about the herb black cohosh--common names, uses, potential side effects, and resources for more information. Black cohosh is a plant native to North America.

      Common Names--black cohosh, black snakeroot, macrotys, bugbane, bugwort, rattleroot, rattleweed

      Latin Names--Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa

      What It Is Used For
      Black cohosh has a history of use for rheumatism (arthritis and muscle pain), but has been used more recently to treat hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and other symptoms that can occur during menopause.
      Black cohosh has also been used for menstrual irregularities and premenstrual syndrome, and to induce labor.
      How It Is Used
      The underground stems and roots of black cohosh are commonly used fresh or dried to make strong teas (infusions), capsules, solid extracts used in pills, or liquid extracts (tinctures).

      What the Science Says
      Study results are mixed on whether black cohosh effectively relieves menopausal symptoms.
      Studies to date have been less than 6 months long, so long-term safety data are not currently available.1
      NCCAM is funding studies to determine whether black cohosh reduces the frequency and intensity of hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms.
      There are not enough reliable data to determine whether black cohosh is effective for rheumatism or other uses.
      Side Effects and Cautions
      Black cohosh can cause headaches and stomach discomfort. In clinical trials comparing the effects of the herb and those of estrogens, a low number of side effects were reported, such as headaches, gastric complaints, heaviness in the legs, and weight problems.
      No interactions have been reported between black cohosh and prescription medicines.
      Black cohosh has recently been linked to a few cases of hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), but it is not clear whether black cohosh caused the problem.
      It is not clear if black cohosh is safe for women who have had breast cancer or for pregnant women.
      Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), which has different properties, treatment uses, and side effects than black cohosh. Black cohosh is sometimes used with blue cohosh to stimulate labor, but this therapy has caused adverse effects in newborns, which appear to be due to blue cohosh.
      It is important to inform your health care providers about any herb or dietary supplement you are using, including black cohosh. This helps to ensure safe and coordinated care.
      http://nccam.nih.gov/health/blackcohosh/

      Also check out http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_cohosh

  45. QUESTION:
    Are there other alternative treatments for Endometriosis other than the Lupron Depot Shot?

    • ANSWER:
      Let me make one thing very clear to you that there is no cure to endometriosis. Treatment for endometriosis is aimed at easing the symptoms so that the condition does not interfere with your daily life.

      Not treating at all is an option if the symptoms are mild and there are no problems with subfertility of infertility. In about a third of cases, endometriosis gets better by itself without treatment. It is also possible to keep an eye on the symptoms and decide to have treatment if they get worse.

      Drug treatments

      Pain killers:

      Non-steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAIDS) are usually the preferred treatment, as they act against the inflammation caused by endometriosis as well as helping ease pain and discomfort. Examples are ibuprofen and naproxen.
      Paracetamol is sometimes used as an alternative. It is not usually as effective as NSAIDS, but may be used if NSAIDS cause any side effects
      Codeine is a stronger pain killer that is sometimes combined with paracetamol or used alone if other pain killers are not suitable. Constipation is a common side-effect

      Hormone treatments:

      Hormone treatments aim to stop egg release (ovulation). This encourages the endometrial tissue to shrink and this helps to reduce the symptoms. In some cases, they may eventually disappear. In effect the treatment stops your periods. There are four broad types of hormone-based treatment:

      Progestogens: these drugs stop egg release and help to shrink endometrial tissue. They sometimes have unpleasant side effects such as bloating, mood changes, irregular bleeding and weight gain. Drug names include medroxyprogesterone acetate, dydrogesterone, and norethisterone.

      Antiprogestogens: these drugs create an effect similar to after the menopause. They can have unpleasant side effects including weight gain, acne, mood changes and the development of masculine features (hair growth and deepening voice). Drug names include danazol and gestrinone; gestrinone is known to have fewer unpleasant side effects

      Combined oral contraceptive pill: Although not officially licensed for the treatment of endometriosis, it can help to relieve symptoms and can be taken indefinitely

      Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues: this is a group of drugs that create an effect similar to after the menopause. They often have unpleasant side effects similar to the menopause such as hot flushes, difficulty sleeping, vaginal dryness, low libido, and headaches and reduced bone mineral density (‘thinning' bones). For this reason they can only be used for relatively short periods of time (6 months). Drug names include buserelin, goserelin, nafarelin, leuprorelin, and triptorelin.

      Surgery

      Surgery can be used to remove areas of endometrial tissue and this can help with the symptoms. This kind of surgery will depend on where the tissue is. Often it is carried out as ‘keyhole’ surgery during a laparoscopy and may include the use of laser surgery techniques. This type of surgery is sometimes called ‘conservative’ surgery as it has a smaller impact on your body and the operations are generally minor.

      If other treatments have not worked and if you have decided not to have any more children, then a hysterectomy is an option. Sometimes this includes removal of the ovaries too (Oophorectomy). Generally, this is considered to be a ‘last resort’ treatment and there is evidence that, even after this operation, endometriosis can come back. Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy are sometimes called ‘radical’ surgery as they are major operations that will have a significant impact on your body.

      Support from self-help groups can be very helpful if you are learning to manage endometriosis.

  46. QUESTION:
    Does soya milk have any health advantages over semi-skimmed milk?

    To old know it all, I would never claim to be vegan, since I like meat it would be hypocrtical.

    I am however willing to try new foods if they make me healthier.
    Wow I didn't know it could control blood sugar in diabetes, I will definelty be trying it then.

    Type 1 diabetic.

    • ANSWER:
      Soy milk is nutritionally close to cow's milk, though most soy milk commercially available today is enriched with added vitamins such as vitamin B12. It naturally has about the same amount of protein as cow milk. Natural soy milk contains little digestable calcium as it is bound to the bean's pulp, which is insoluble in a human. To counter this, many manufacturers enrich their products with calcium carbonate which can dissolve in the acid of the stomach. Notably it has little saturated fat, which many consider to be a benefit. Lower fat varieties, however, contain less protein than cow's milk.

      Soy milk is promoted as a healthy alternative to cow's milk for reasons including:

      * Contains no antibiotics, hormones, cholesterol, or links to cancer, diabetes, and other diseases
      * Diabetes management through its ability to control blood sugar levels. However, diabetics should be aware that most brands of soymilk - even those labelled "plain" or "organic" - are actually sweetened. Look for the word "unsweetened" on the label.
      * Source of lecithin and vitamin E
      * Lacks casein
      * Safe for people with lactose intolerance or milk allergy
      * Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are good for the heart.
      * Contains isoflavones, organic chemicals, that may possibly be beneficial to health.

      In 1995 the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol.333, No. 5) published a report from the University of Kentucky entitled "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont,"The Solae Co." St.Louis. This meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), a.k.a. bad cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. However, high density lipoprotein (HDL) a.k.a. good cholesterol, did not increase. Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones:genistein and daidzein) adsorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this research PTI, in 1998, filed a petition with FDA for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.

      The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." One serving of soy milk (1 cup or 240 mL), for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein.

      In January, 2006 an American Heart Association review (in the journal Circulation) of a decade-long study of soy protein benefits cast doubt on the FDA-allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein. The panel also found that soy isoflavones do not reduce post menopause "hot flashes" in women, nor do isoflavones help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus, or prostate. Thus soy isoflavones in the form of supplements is not recommended. Among the conclusions the authors state, "In contrast, soy products such as tofu, soy butter, soy nuts, or some soy burgers should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular health."

      However, the soy industry has also received similar criticism from the dairy industry for reasons including:

      * High levels of phytic acid
      * Hemagglutinin content. Soybean hemagglutinins are glycoproteins that cause red blood cells to agglutinate or clump together. Hemagglutinins are concentrated in the whey protein fraction of soy milk. Hemagglutinating activity of raw soybeans is readily destroyed by moist heat treatment. This is similar to a substance found in flu viruses, although it is rather unlikely to be harmful unless the soy milk is taken intravenously.
      * Processing of soybeans, including genetic modification, which may result in lysinoalanine or nitrosamines
      * Trypsin inhibitors content
      * Soy phytoestrogens as antithyroid agents
      * Aluminum content.

      Although in general soy milk is not suitable for babies or infants, there exist baby formulas based on soy protein, i.e. soy milk, that are used primarily in the case of lactose intolerant children, those allergic to cow's milk or parental preference for a vegetarian or vegan diet. Heinz Farley's Soya Infant Formula is suitable for vegans and is approved by the Vegan Society in the UK. These formulas are commonly named "soy milk", but contain extra carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and minerals. However care must be taken that children with "Soy protein intolerance" are not fed soy milk.
      Using soybeans to make milk instead of raising cows is said to have ecological advantages, as the amount of soy that could be grown using the same amount of land would feed more people than if used to raise cows. This is debated as grazing land for animals is very different from land used to farm. Because the soybean plant is a legume, it also replenishes the nitrogen content of the soil in which it is grown.

  47. QUESTION:
    Are there any alternative treatment methods for uterine fibroids besides surgery?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes there is. Here is a link that shows various treatments.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterine_fibroids#Treatment

      I had the uterine arterial embolization. It hurt like a mofo, but it was worth it. If you go with this option, you can email me at zyada_tx @ yahoo.com for more information.

      Do NOT let a doctor convince you that you must get a hysterectomy! Some doctors are convinced that hystorectomy is the only way to treat this (or perhaps they prefer the profit margin).

      Also, I heard very, very bad things about the medicine listed in that article. It's basically an artificial menopause with all the grief that entails.

  48. QUESTION:
    I have heavy periods i'm to young for surgery or medician how can i stop them???(Dose exersize help)?
    I am trying to find ways to stop it i don't want blood to soak thru my cloths at school hhhhhhhhhhhheeeeeeeeeeeeeeellllllllllllllllpppppppp

    • ANSWER:
      What are heavy periods?

      The correct medical definition of heavy periods is the passage of more than 80ml of blood each period. It is seldom realistic or practical, however, to actually measure the blood loss and so doctors rely on the woman's description of her period.

      Periods are considered heavy when:

      a woman bleeds for more than 8 to 10 days, especially if this is repeated month after month.

      a woman bleeds so much that it is difficult for her to attend her job. She may be forced to plan her holidays and leisure time according to the timings of her period.

      the bleeding is continuously so heavy that the woman becomes anaemic.

      the presence of other than small clots for more than one or two days suggests heavy periods.

      'flooding' describes the sudden, unexpected onset of periods, like turning on a tap, and indicates heavy periods.

      Why do some women have heavy and long menstrual flows?

      The causes of prolonged and heavy bleeding are given below.

      In younger women heavy periods are most often due to a temporary hormone imbalance, which eventually corrects itself.

      In the years close to the menopause, (45 years of age onwards) heavy periods are usually a sign of hormone imbalance. However, the possibility of heavy periods being caused by an underlying disease increases with age.

      The following conditions are associated with heavy periods:

      fibroids.

      endometriosis.

      pelvic inflammatory disease.

      polyps of the lining of the womb.

      the commonest cause is a condition called dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). This refers to heavy bleeding with no apparent explanation.

      Is it necessary to consult a doctor?

      If a woman is experiencing heavy or irregular periods that are interfering with her quality of life, then she should consult a GP or gynaecologist.

      What will the doctor do?

      A pelvic examination is usually necessary. If the woman is over 40 years of age, then a pelvic ultrasound scan or a biopsy of the lining of the womb is appropriate. This is to ensure that there is no abnormality with the cells of the lining of the womb.

      An examination called a hysteroscopy is often suggested. This involves placing a fine telescope through the neck of the womb so that the lining of the womb can be seen. Most hysteroscopies are performed without the need for general anaesthesia.

      How are heavy periods treated?

      If there are no signs of an underlying abnormality, treatment is not absolutely necessary but most women prefer to have something to help them cope more easily each month.

      If the problems are severe, bleeding may be regulated by tablet treatment. These may be hormonal or non-hormonal.

      Hormonal treatments include the contraceptive pill and danazol (eg Danol).

      Progestogens are effective in making a woman's periods more regular but do not reduce the monthly flow.

      Non-hormonal treatments include tranexamic acid (eg Cyklokapron), which reduces the blood loss by up to half.

      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce monthly loss by about a third.

      Alternative approaches include the use of a hormone containing contraceptive coil (Mirena), which is suitable for most women.

      Surgical alternatives include destroying the lining of the womb with a laser or applying heat treatment to the lining of the womb with hot water in a balloon. Hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus - is commonly performed for heavy periods. These two surgical procedures are only appropriate for women who do not wish to have any more children.

      If a diagnosis of an underlying condition is made, then the treatment will be tailored towards that condition.

      If the woman is anaemic, iron or folic acid supplements may be needed.

      Hope tobe useful for you

  49. QUESTION:
    What do u do if ur underarm is sweaty? Even when u put deodorant?
    HElp please

    • ANSWER:
      Try to put some baby powder under your armpits. Try a different deodarant...Yes thats perfectly normal to sweat at 10. Also after you pick on of these tips you wont need an outfit to wear that you wont sweat in because you wont sweat.
      But if you are concerned about your clothes making you swear try this:
      * Wear light-colored, loose-fitting clothing. If you sweat through your clothes, it will be less visible on light colors, and a loose fit will allow air to circulate next to your skin.

      * Don't wear silk or artificial fibers (like nylon and polyester) next to your skin. These can cling to skin and restrict airflow. Instead, wear cotton. In fact, natural cotton perspiration shields can be worn under clothing to provide an extra layer of protection; check out several options (including shields that can be worn with sleeveless clothing and ones that are disposable or washable) at comfywear.com.

      * Look for an antiperspirant with aluminum chloride. This is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants that works by blocking the pores to prevent sweat from escaping. While you may have heard rumors about aluminum chloride being linked to diseases such as breast cancer, it has never been proven to increase any health risks, says Jim Garza, M.D., founder of The Hyperhidrosis Center in Houston.

      There are numbers of factors that can affect the quantity and odor quality of your sweat which will increase the need to stop sweating. Some of the factors that can increase your concern to stop sweating are discussed below:

      1. Heredity

      Hyperhidrosis is believed to be an inherited problem and palms and soles are most affected areas of this problem. It can be clearly gauged that the problem in hands and feet can severely impair the ability to work and therefore you need seriously to think about treatment for stop sweating.

      2. Certain foods and beverages

      Excessive sweating is directly linked to your eating habits. If you want to stop sweating you should have control on drinking hot beverages and alcohol eating spicy foods etc. All these food items increase the rate of sweat in your body!

      3. Certain medication

      There are some drugs and medication that can potentially increase the problem of sweating in your body and you should refrain yourself from taking these drugs to stop sweating. Drugs that can cause excessive sweating include some antipsychotic medications—used to treat mental disorders—morphine and excess doses of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. You should always consult your doctor before you get the prescription of these drugs about your problem of excessive sweating. Sometimes an overdose of analgesics can also increase the problem.

      4. Menopause

      Menopause can potentially cause a form of heavy sweating known as hot flashes in women. Hot flashes can also occur in night and during sleep and the women wake up drenched totally in their own sweat which is a troublesome condition. You should immediately consider for treatments to stop sweating if you face this condition.

      5. Overactive thyroid or hyperthyroidism

      Sometimes the thyroid gland of our body produces excess amounts of the hormone thyroxine which can increase the sensitivity to heat. This directly results in more sweating which can hinder your day-to-day working and you will have to look for alternatives to stop sweating in order to get to the normal conditions.

      Another way you can tackle this problem is to use talcum powder along with the antiperspirant. This will help keep you dry and at the same time work towards preventing sweating.

      Diet and Lifestyle, avoid caffeinated drinks - caffeine can lead to anxiety and anxiety is one of the known causes of secondary hyperhydrosis. Exercise, this will help get your body in shape and as result it will perform better helping you to tackle this condition.

      Eat lots of fruit - one of the good fruits to eat is grapes. Lastly drinks lots of water this will help flush your system and keep your skin hydrated and in good health.

      - denvirox :-)

  50. QUESTION:
    Do the side effects of Arimidex subside the longer you use it?

    • ANSWER:
      Anytime you have to start taking a prescription drug you should thoroughly research it as much as possible to be able to weigh the pros and cons of the medication. Type in your searchbar, "side effects of arimidex" and read through the listed sites. Are you taking this for menopause? If so, type in "alternative treatments for menopause" and see what else is available, especially if it is more natural. Be informed about your choices and your body! I have a doctor that wanted to put me on cholesterol medication and against his advice I refused it and told him I would see him in 6 weeks. With a diet change and supplements I got my cholesterol down to perfect without medication that could harm my liver! Good Luck!


menopause alternative treatments